Electric City Bus Energy Flow Model and Its Validation by Dynamometer Test

Teemu Halmeaho, Pekka Rahkola, Ari-Pekka Pellikka, Sami Ruotsalainen, Kari Tammi

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

    10 Citations (Scopus)


    Battery electric city bus model has been created and the simulation results compared against the measured results from the full scale city bus developed for heavy vehicle research. The model utilizes multi-physics modelling approach with multiple-domains from friction-tyre and transmission model to electrical drive and a simplified battery model. The modelled and measured motor torque, current and voltages in the battery and inverter and the bus speed were compared under a driving cycle based on a local bus line. The simulated results were in good agreement with the experimental measured results; the error between the simulated and measured energy consumption was 1.4 %. The measured average energy consumption was 0.581 kWh/km while the simulation estimated 0.589 kWh/km.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationVehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), 2015 IEEE
    PublisherIEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
    ISBN (Electronic)978-1-4673-7637-2, 978-1-4673-7636-5
    Publication statusPublished - 17 Dec 2015
    MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
    Event2015 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference - Montreal, Canada
    Duration: 19 Oct 201522 Oct 2015


    Conference2015 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference
    Abbreviated titleVPPC


    • simulation
    • measurement
    • bus
    • battery
    • electric
    • heavy
    • vehicle


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