Electrodeposition of PbS, PbSe and PbTe thin films: Dissertation

Heini Saloniemi

    Research output: ThesisDissertationCollection of Articles

    Abstract

    Lead chalcogenides (PbS, PbSe, PbTe) are narrow band gap semiconductors which are largely used in infrared applications. In the present study lead chalcogenide thin films were deposited electrochemically from aqueous solutions. Two different electrodeposition methods were used; PbSe and PbTe thin films were prepared at constant potential while PbS was deposited by cycling the potential. Chemical and physical properties of the films were examined by various techniques, and their electrical properties were studied as well. PbSe and PbS thin films were found to be stoichiometric whereas PbTe thin films contained an excess of Te. The films contained water as an impurity. All the films had polycrystalline, randomly oriented cubic structure. After annealing the films showed p-type conductivity. The annealing at 100 °C did not affect much the resistivities of PbS and PbTe which remained between 0.5-10 W cm but the resistivity of PbSe films increased to 1-60 kW cm. All films showed IR activity. Electrodeposition mechanisms of PbSe, PbTe and PbS thin films and electrochemistry of the related precursors were studied by means of the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) combined with cyclic voltammetry. Both film growth and EQCM studies showed that the electrodeposition of PbSe and PbTe occurs by the induced codeposition mechanism, where Se (or Te) is deposited first and induces the reduction of lead ions to form PbSe (or PbTe) so that this occurs at more positive potential than where lead alone would be deposited. Electrodeposition of PbS, on the other hand, turned out to be complicated including several simultaneous processes.
    Original languageEnglish
    QualificationDoctor Degree
    Awarding Institution
    • University of Helsinki
    Supervisors/Advisors
    • Leskelä, Markku, Supervisor, External person
    • Ritala, Mikko, Supervisor, External person
    Award date15 Dec 2000
    Place of PublicationEspoo
    Publisher
    Print ISBNs951-38-5587-2
    Electronic ISBNs951-38-5588-0
    Publication statusPublished - 2000
    MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)

    Fingerprint

    electrodeposition
    thin films
    quartz crystals
    microbalances
    electrical resistivity
    annealing
    chalcogenides
    electrochemistry
    chemical properties
    narrowband
    physical properties
    electrical properties
    aqueous solutions
    impurities
    conductivity
    cycles
    water
    ions

    Keywords

    • lead chalcogenides
    • chalcogenide compounds
    • electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance = EQCM
    • cyclic voltammetry
    • film growth
    • metal film deposition
    • electroanalytical techniques

    Cite this

    Saloniemi, H. (2000). Electrodeposition of PbS, PbSe and PbTe thin films: Dissertation. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Saloniemi, Heini. / Electrodeposition of PbS, PbSe and PbTe thin films : Dissertation. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2000. 84 p.
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    abstract = "Lead chalcogenides (PbS, PbSe, PbTe) are narrow band gap semiconductors which are largely used in infrared applications. In the present study lead chalcogenide thin films were deposited electrochemically from aqueous solutions. Two different electrodeposition methods were used; PbSe and PbTe thin films were prepared at constant potential while PbS was deposited by cycling the potential. Chemical and physical properties of the films were examined by various techniques, and their electrical properties were studied as well. PbSe and PbS thin films were found to be stoichiometric whereas PbTe thin films contained an excess of Te. The films contained water as an impurity. All the films had polycrystalline, randomly oriented cubic structure. After annealing the films showed p-type conductivity. The annealing at 100 °C did not affect much the resistivities of PbS and PbTe which remained between 0.5-10 W cm but the resistivity of PbSe films increased to 1-60 kW cm. All films showed IR activity. Electrodeposition mechanisms of PbSe, PbTe and PbS thin films and electrochemistry of the related precursors were studied by means of the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) combined with cyclic voltammetry. Both film growth and EQCM studies showed that the electrodeposition of PbSe and PbTe occurs by the induced codeposition mechanism, where Se (or Te) is deposited first and induces the reduction of lead ions to form PbSe (or PbTe) so that this occurs at more positive potential than where lead alone would be deposited. Electrodeposition of PbS, on the other hand, turned out to be complicated including several simultaneous processes.",
    keywords = "lead chalcogenides, chalcogenide compounds, electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance = EQCM, cyclic voltammetry, film growth, metal film deposition, electroanalytical techniques",
    author = "Heini Saloniemi",
    year = "2000",
    language = "English",
    isbn = "951-38-5587-2",
    series = "VTT Publications",
    publisher = "VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland",
    number = "423",
    address = "Finland",
    school = "University of Helsinki",

    }

    Saloniemi, H 2000, 'Electrodeposition of PbS, PbSe and PbTe thin films: Dissertation', Doctor Degree, University of Helsinki, Espoo.

    Electrodeposition of PbS, PbSe and PbTe thin films : Dissertation. / Saloniemi, Heini.

    Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2000. 84 p.

    Research output: ThesisDissertationCollection of Articles

    TY - THES

    T1 - Electrodeposition of PbS, PbSe and PbTe thin films

    T2 - Dissertation

    AU - Saloniemi, Heini

    PY - 2000

    Y1 - 2000

    N2 - Lead chalcogenides (PbS, PbSe, PbTe) are narrow band gap semiconductors which are largely used in infrared applications. In the present study lead chalcogenide thin films were deposited electrochemically from aqueous solutions. Two different electrodeposition methods were used; PbSe and PbTe thin films were prepared at constant potential while PbS was deposited by cycling the potential. Chemical and physical properties of the films were examined by various techniques, and their electrical properties were studied as well. PbSe and PbS thin films were found to be stoichiometric whereas PbTe thin films contained an excess of Te. The films contained water as an impurity. All the films had polycrystalline, randomly oriented cubic structure. After annealing the films showed p-type conductivity. The annealing at 100 °C did not affect much the resistivities of PbS and PbTe which remained between 0.5-10 W cm but the resistivity of PbSe films increased to 1-60 kW cm. All films showed IR activity. Electrodeposition mechanisms of PbSe, PbTe and PbS thin films and electrochemistry of the related precursors were studied by means of the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) combined with cyclic voltammetry. Both film growth and EQCM studies showed that the electrodeposition of PbSe and PbTe occurs by the induced codeposition mechanism, where Se (or Te) is deposited first and induces the reduction of lead ions to form PbSe (or PbTe) so that this occurs at more positive potential than where lead alone would be deposited. Electrodeposition of PbS, on the other hand, turned out to be complicated including several simultaneous processes.

    AB - Lead chalcogenides (PbS, PbSe, PbTe) are narrow band gap semiconductors which are largely used in infrared applications. In the present study lead chalcogenide thin films were deposited electrochemically from aqueous solutions. Two different electrodeposition methods were used; PbSe and PbTe thin films were prepared at constant potential while PbS was deposited by cycling the potential. Chemical and physical properties of the films were examined by various techniques, and their electrical properties were studied as well. PbSe and PbS thin films were found to be stoichiometric whereas PbTe thin films contained an excess of Te. The films contained water as an impurity. All the films had polycrystalline, randomly oriented cubic structure. After annealing the films showed p-type conductivity. The annealing at 100 °C did not affect much the resistivities of PbS and PbTe which remained between 0.5-10 W cm but the resistivity of PbSe films increased to 1-60 kW cm. All films showed IR activity. Electrodeposition mechanisms of PbSe, PbTe and PbS thin films and electrochemistry of the related precursors were studied by means of the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) combined with cyclic voltammetry. Both film growth and EQCM studies showed that the electrodeposition of PbSe and PbTe occurs by the induced codeposition mechanism, where Se (or Te) is deposited first and induces the reduction of lead ions to form PbSe (or PbTe) so that this occurs at more positive potential than where lead alone would be deposited. Electrodeposition of PbS, on the other hand, turned out to be complicated including several simultaneous processes.

    KW - lead chalcogenides

    KW - chalcogenide compounds

    KW - electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance = EQCM

    KW - cyclic voltammetry

    KW - film growth

    KW - metal film deposition

    KW - electroanalytical techniques

    M3 - Dissertation

    SN - 951-38-5587-2

    T3 - VTT Publications

    PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

    CY - Espoo

    ER -

    Saloniemi H. Electrodeposition of PbS, PbSe and PbTe thin films: Dissertation. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2000. 84 p.