Electrostatic precipitator performance and trace element emissions from two kraft recovery boilers

Terttaliisa Lind, Jouni Hokkinen, Jorma Jokiniemi (Corresponding Author), R. Hillamo, U. Makkonen, A. Raukola, J. Rintanen, K. Saviharju

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    10 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Fine particle emissions from combustion sources have gained attention recently due to their adverse effects on human health. The emission depends on the combustion process, fuel, and particulate removal technology. Particle concentrations at Kraft recovery boiler exits are very high, and the boilers are typically equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). However, little data are available on the ESP performance in recovery boilers. Particle concentrations and size distributions were determined at two modern, operating recovery boilers. In addition, we determined the fractional collection efficiency of the ESPs by simultaneous measurements at the ESP inlet and outlet and the particulate emissions of trace metals. The particle mass concentration at the ESP inlet was 11−24 g/Nm3 at the two boilers. Particle emissions were 30−40 mg/Nm3 at boiler A and 12−15 mg/Nm3 at boiler B. The particle size distributions had a major particle mode at around 1 μm. These fume particles contained most of the particle mass. The main components in the particles were sodium and sulfate with minor amounts of chloride, potassium, and presumably some carbonate. The ESP collection efficiency was 99.6−99.8% at boiler A and 99.9% at boiler B. The particle penetration through the ESP was below 0.6% in the entire fume particle size range of 0.3−3 μm. Trace element emissions from both boilers were well below the limit values set by EU directive for waste incineration.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)584-589
    Number of pages6
    JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
    Volume40
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2006
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Electrostatic precipitators
    Trace Elements
    Boilers
    trace element
    Recovery
    Fumes
    combustion
    particle size
    particle
    boiler
    potassium chloride
    Particulate emissions
    Potassium Chloride
    Waste incineration
    Carbonates
    incineration
    Particle size analysis
    Particles (particulate matter)
    trace metal
    penetration

    Keywords

    • emissions
    • fine particles
    • Kraft pulp
    • recycling of kraft pulp
    • black liquor
    • boilers
    • electrostatic precipitators

    Cite this

    Lind, Terttaliisa ; Hokkinen, Jouni ; Jokiniemi, Jorma ; Hillamo, R. ; Makkonen, U. ; Raukola, A. ; Rintanen, J. ; Saviharju, K. / Electrostatic precipitator performance and trace element emissions from two kraft recovery boilers. In: Environmental Science & Technology. 2006 ; Vol. 40, No. 2. pp. 584-589.
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    title = "Electrostatic precipitator performance and trace element emissions from two kraft recovery boilers",
    abstract = "Fine particle emissions from combustion sources have gained attention recently due to their adverse effects on human health. The emission depends on the combustion process, fuel, and particulate removal technology. Particle concentrations at Kraft recovery boiler exits are very high, and the boilers are typically equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). However, little data are available on the ESP performance in recovery boilers. Particle concentrations and size distributions were determined at two modern, operating recovery boilers. In addition, we determined the fractional collection efficiency of the ESPs by simultaneous measurements at the ESP inlet and outlet and the particulate emissions of trace metals. The particle mass concentration at the ESP inlet was 11−24 g/Nm3 at the two boilers. Particle emissions were 30−40 mg/Nm3 at boiler A and 12−15 mg/Nm3 at boiler B. The particle size distributions had a major particle mode at around 1 μm. These fume particles contained most of the particle mass. The main components in the particles were sodium and sulfate with minor amounts of chloride, potassium, and presumably some carbonate. The ESP collection efficiency was 99.6−99.8{\%} at boiler A and 99.9{\%} at boiler B. The particle penetration through the ESP was below 0.6{\%} in the entire fume particle size range of 0.3−3 μm. Trace element emissions from both boilers were well below the limit values set by EU directive for waste incineration.",
    keywords = "emissions, fine particles, Kraft pulp, recycling of kraft pulp, black liquor, boilers, electrostatic precipitators",
    author = "Terttaliisa Lind and Jouni Hokkinen and Jorma Jokiniemi and R. Hillamo and U. Makkonen and A. Raukola and J. Rintanen and K. Saviharju",
    year = "2006",
    doi = "10.1021/es0503027",
    language = "English",
    volume = "40",
    pages = "584--589",
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    Lind, T, Hokkinen, J, Jokiniemi, J, Hillamo, R, Makkonen, U, Raukola, A, Rintanen, J & Saviharju, K 2006, 'Electrostatic precipitator performance and trace element emissions from two kraft recovery boilers', Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 584-589. https://doi.org/10.1021/es0503027

    Electrostatic precipitator performance and trace element emissions from two kraft recovery boilers. / Lind, Terttaliisa; Hokkinen, Jouni; Jokiniemi, Jorma (Corresponding Author); Hillamo, R.; Makkonen, U.; Raukola, A.; Rintanen, J.; Saviharju, K.

    In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2006, p. 584-589.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Electrostatic precipitator performance and trace element emissions from two kraft recovery boilers

    AU - Lind, Terttaliisa

    AU - Hokkinen, Jouni

    AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma

    AU - Hillamo, R.

    AU - Makkonen, U.

    AU - Raukola, A.

    AU - Rintanen, J.

    AU - Saviharju, K.

    PY - 2006

    Y1 - 2006

    N2 - Fine particle emissions from combustion sources have gained attention recently due to their adverse effects on human health. The emission depends on the combustion process, fuel, and particulate removal technology. Particle concentrations at Kraft recovery boiler exits are very high, and the boilers are typically equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). However, little data are available on the ESP performance in recovery boilers. Particle concentrations and size distributions were determined at two modern, operating recovery boilers. In addition, we determined the fractional collection efficiency of the ESPs by simultaneous measurements at the ESP inlet and outlet and the particulate emissions of trace metals. The particle mass concentration at the ESP inlet was 11−24 g/Nm3 at the two boilers. Particle emissions were 30−40 mg/Nm3 at boiler A and 12−15 mg/Nm3 at boiler B. The particle size distributions had a major particle mode at around 1 μm. These fume particles contained most of the particle mass. The main components in the particles were sodium and sulfate with minor amounts of chloride, potassium, and presumably some carbonate. The ESP collection efficiency was 99.6−99.8% at boiler A and 99.9% at boiler B. The particle penetration through the ESP was below 0.6% in the entire fume particle size range of 0.3−3 μm. Trace element emissions from both boilers were well below the limit values set by EU directive for waste incineration.

    AB - Fine particle emissions from combustion sources have gained attention recently due to their adverse effects on human health. The emission depends on the combustion process, fuel, and particulate removal technology. Particle concentrations at Kraft recovery boiler exits are very high, and the boilers are typically equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). However, little data are available on the ESP performance in recovery boilers. Particle concentrations and size distributions were determined at two modern, operating recovery boilers. In addition, we determined the fractional collection efficiency of the ESPs by simultaneous measurements at the ESP inlet and outlet and the particulate emissions of trace metals. The particle mass concentration at the ESP inlet was 11−24 g/Nm3 at the two boilers. Particle emissions were 30−40 mg/Nm3 at boiler A and 12−15 mg/Nm3 at boiler B. The particle size distributions had a major particle mode at around 1 μm. These fume particles contained most of the particle mass. The main components in the particles were sodium and sulfate with minor amounts of chloride, potassium, and presumably some carbonate. The ESP collection efficiency was 99.6−99.8% at boiler A and 99.9% at boiler B. The particle penetration through the ESP was below 0.6% in the entire fume particle size range of 0.3−3 μm. Trace element emissions from both boilers were well below the limit values set by EU directive for waste incineration.

    KW - emissions

    KW - fine particles

    KW - Kraft pulp

    KW - recycling of kraft pulp

    KW - black liquor

    KW - boilers

    KW - electrostatic precipitators

    U2 - 10.1021/es0503027

    DO - 10.1021/es0503027

    M3 - Article

    VL - 40

    SP - 584

    EP - 589

    JO - Environmental Science & Technology

    JF - Environmental Science & Technology

    SN - 0013-936X

    IS - 2

    ER -