Electrostatic precipitator performance and trace element emissions from two kraft recovery boilers

Terttaliisa Lind, Jouni Hokkinen, Jorma Jokiniemi (Corresponding Author), R. Hillamo, U. Makkonen, A. Raukola, J. Rintanen, K. Saviharju

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    11 Citations (Scopus)


    Fine particle emissions from combustion sources have gained attention recently due to their adverse effects on human health. The emission depends on the combustion process, fuel, and particulate removal technology. Particle concentrations at Kraft recovery boiler exits are very high, and the boilers are typically equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). However, little data are available on the ESP performance in recovery boilers. Particle concentrations and size distributions were determined at two modern, operating recovery boilers. In addition, we determined the fractional collection efficiency of the ESPs by simultaneous measurements at the ESP inlet and outlet and the particulate emissions of trace metals. The particle mass concentration at the ESP inlet was 11−24 g/Nm3 at the two boilers. Particle emissions were 30−40 mg/Nm3 at boiler A and 12−15 mg/Nm3 at boiler B. The particle size distributions had a major particle mode at around 1 μm. These fume particles contained most of the particle mass. The main components in the particles were sodium and sulfate with minor amounts of chloride, potassium, and presumably some carbonate. The ESP collection efficiency was 99.6−99.8% at boiler A and 99.9% at boiler B. The particle penetration through the ESP was below 0.6% in the entire fume particle size range of 0.3−3 μm. Trace element emissions from both boilers were well below the limit values set by EU directive for waste incineration.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)584-589
    Number of pages6
    JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2006
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • emissions
    • fine particles
    • Kraft pulp
    • recycling of kraft pulp
    • black liquor
    • boilers
    • electrostatic precipitators


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