Electrostatic precipitator performance and trace element emissions from two kraft recovery boilers

Terttaliisa Lind, Jouni Hokkinen, Jorma Jokiniemi (Corresponding Author), R. Hillamo, U. Makkonen, A. Raukola, J. Rintanen, K. Saviharju

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Fine particle emissions from combustion sources have gained attention recently due to their adverse effects on human health. The emission depends on the combustion process, fuel, and particulate removal technology. Particle concentrations at Kraft recovery boiler exits are very high, and the boilers are typically equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). However, little data are available on the ESP performance in recovery boilers. Particle concentrations and size distributions were determined at two modern, operating recovery boilers. In addition, we determined the fractional collection efficiency of the ESPs by simultaneous measurements at the ESP inlet and outlet and the particulate emissions of trace metals. The particle mass concentration at the ESP inlet was 11−24 g/Nm3 at the two boilers. Particle emissions were 30−40 mg/Nm3 at boiler A and 12−15 mg/Nm3 at boiler B. The particle size distributions had a major particle mode at around 1 μm. These fume particles contained most of the particle mass. The main components in the particles were sodium and sulfate with minor amounts of chloride, potassium, and presumably some carbonate. The ESP collection efficiency was 99.6−99.8% at boiler A and 99.9% at boiler B. The particle penetration through the ESP was below 0.6% in the entire fume particle size range of 0.3−3 μm. Trace element emissions from both boilers were well below the limit values set by EU directive for waste incineration.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)584-589
Number of pages6
JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
Volume40
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Electrostatic precipitators
Trace Elements
Boilers
trace element
Recovery
Fumes
combustion
particle size
particle
boiler
potassium chloride
Particulate emissions
Potassium Chloride
Waste incineration
Carbonates
incineration
Particle size analysis
Particles (particulate matter)
trace metal
penetration

Keywords

  • emissions
  • fine particles
  • Kraft pulp
  • recycling of kraft pulp
  • black liquor
  • boilers
  • electrostatic precipitators

Cite this

Lind, Terttaliisa ; Hokkinen, Jouni ; Jokiniemi, Jorma ; Hillamo, R. ; Makkonen, U. ; Raukola, A. ; Rintanen, J. ; Saviharju, K. / Electrostatic precipitator performance and trace element emissions from two kraft recovery boilers. In: Environmental Science & Technology. 2006 ; Vol. 40, No. 2. pp. 584-589.
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abstract = "Fine particle emissions from combustion sources have gained attention recently due to their adverse effects on human health. The emission depends on the combustion process, fuel, and particulate removal technology. Particle concentrations at Kraft recovery boiler exits are very high, and the boilers are typically equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). However, little data are available on the ESP performance in recovery boilers. Particle concentrations and size distributions were determined at two modern, operating recovery boilers. In addition, we determined the fractional collection efficiency of the ESPs by simultaneous measurements at the ESP inlet and outlet and the particulate emissions of trace metals. The particle mass concentration at the ESP inlet was 11−24 g/Nm3 at the two boilers. Particle emissions were 30−40 mg/Nm3 at boiler A and 12−15 mg/Nm3 at boiler B. The particle size distributions had a major particle mode at around 1 μm. These fume particles contained most of the particle mass. The main components in the particles were sodium and sulfate with minor amounts of chloride, potassium, and presumably some carbonate. The ESP collection efficiency was 99.6−99.8{\%} at boiler A and 99.9{\%} at boiler B. The particle penetration through the ESP was below 0.6{\%} in the entire fume particle size range of 0.3−3 μm. Trace element emissions from both boilers were well below the limit values set by EU directive for waste incineration.",
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Lind, T, Hokkinen, J, Jokiniemi, J, Hillamo, R, Makkonen, U, Raukola, A, Rintanen, J & Saviharju, K 2006, 'Electrostatic precipitator performance and trace element emissions from two kraft recovery boilers', Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 584-589. https://doi.org/10.1021/es0503027

Electrostatic precipitator performance and trace element emissions from two kraft recovery boilers. / Lind, Terttaliisa; Hokkinen, Jouni; Jokiniemi, Jorma (Corresponding Author); Hillamo, R.; Makkonen, U.; Raukola, A.; Rintanen, J.; Saviharju, K.

In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2006, p. 584-589.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Electrostatic precipitator performance and trace element emissions from two kraft recovery boilers

AU - Lind, Terttaliisa

AU - Hokkinen, Jouni

AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma

AU - Hillamo, R.

AU - Makkonen, U.

AU - Raukola, A.

AU - Rintanen, J.

AU - Saviharju, K.

PY - 2006

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N2 - Fine particle emissions from combustion sources have gained attention recently due to their adverse effects on human health. The emission depends on the combustion process, fuel, and particulate removal technology. Particle concentrations at Kraft recovery boiler exits are very high, and the boilers are typically equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). However, little data are available on the ESP performance in recovery boilers. Particle concentrations and size distributions were determined at two modern, operating recovery boilers. In addition, we determined the fractional collection efficiency of the ESPs by simultaneous measurements at the ESP inlet and outlet and the particulate emissions of trace metals. The particle mass concentration at the ESP inlet was 11−24 g/Nm3 at the two boilers. Particle emissions were 30−40 mg/Nm3 at boiler A and 12−15 mg/Nm3 at boiler B. The particle size distributions had a major particle mode at around 1 μm. These fume particles contained most of the particle mass. The main components in the particles were sodium and sulfate with minor amounts of chloride, potassium, and presumably some carbonate. The ESP collection efficiency was 99.6−99.8% at boiler A and 99.9% at boiler B. The particle penetration through the ESP was below 0.6% in the entire fume particle size range of 0.3−3 μm. Trace element emissions from both boilers were well below the limit values set by EU directive for waste incineration.

AB - Fine particle emissions from combustion sources have gained attention recently due to their adverse effects on human health. The emission depends on the combustion process, fuel, and particulate removal technology. Particle concentrations at Kraft recovery boiler exits are very high, and the boilers are typically equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). However, little data are available on the ESP performance in recovery boilers. Particle concentrations and size distributions were determined at two modern, operating recovery boilers. In addition, we determined the fractional collection efficiency of the ESPs by simultaneous measurements at the ESP inlet and outlet and the particulate emissions of trace metals. The particle mass concentration at the ESP inlet was 11−24 g/Nm3 at the two boilers. Particle emissions were 30−40 mg/Nm3 at boiler A and 12−15 mg/Nm3 at boiler B. The particle size distributions had a major particle mode at around 1 μm. These fume particles contained most of the particle mass. The main components in the particles were sodium and sulfate with minor amounts of chloride, potassium, and presumably some carbonate. The ESP collection efficiency was 99.6−99.8% at boiler A and 99.9% at boiler B. The particle penetration through the ESP was below 0.6% in the entire fume particle size range of 0.3−3 μm. Trace element emissions from both boilers were well below the limit values set by EU directive for waste incineration.

KW - emissions

KW - fine particles

KW - Kraft pulp

KW - recycling of kraft pulp

KW - black liquor

KW - boilers

KW - electrostatic precipitators

U2 - 10.1021/es0503027

DO - 10.1021/es0503027

M3 - Article

VL - 40

SP - 584

EP - 589

JO - Environmental Science & Technology

JF - Environmental Science & Technology

SN - 0013-936X

IS - 2

ER -