Elemental balance of SRF production process: Solid recovered fuel produced from commercial and industrial waste

Muhammad Nasrullah (Corresponding Author), Pasi Vainikka, Janne Hannula, Markku Hurme

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In order to study the mass flow of pollutant and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the output streams of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process, the various streams produced in commercial scale SRF production process are characterized chemically and, the elemental balance of SRF production process is presented. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). The elements investigated for their mass balance in SRF production process are chlorine (Cl), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg). The results showed that of the total input chlorine 60% was found in the SRF stream and 35% in the reject material stream and rest of 5% was in fine fraction and heavy fraction streams. Of the total input arsenic content 42% was found in the reject material and 32% in the SRF stream and rest (i.e. 26%) was found in the fine fraction stream. In case of cadmium, lead and mercury of their total input content to the process 46%, 58% and 45% respectively was found in the SRF stream. Among the waste components of C&IW, rubber and plastic (hard) were measured to contain the highest content of chlorine i.e. 8.0 wt.% (dry basis) and 3.0 wt.% (dry basis) respectively. Rubber was also found to contain higher content of cadmium as compared to other waste components. Plastic (hard) was measured to contain higher content of lead (i.e. 400 mg/kg, dry basis) than other components of input waste stream. The distribution of waste components (mainly plastic (hard), rubber and to some extent textile) was found significantly more important than other components of input waste stream in defining the concentration of pollutant and potentially toxic elements in output streams of SRF production process.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
JournalFuel
Volume145
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Industrial Waste
Industrial wastes
Chlorine
Rubber
Cadmium
Mercury (metal)
Lead
Poisons
Arsenic
Plastics
Mercury
Textiles

Keywords

  • solid fuels
  • elemental balance
  • potentially toxic elements
  • process streams
  • industrial waste

Cite this

Nasrullah, Muhammad ; Vainikka, Pasi ; Hannula, Janne ; Hurme, Markku. / Elemental balance of SRF production process : Solid recovered fuel produced from commercial and industrial waste. In: Fuel. 2015 ; Vol. 145. pp. 1-11.
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abstract = "In order to study the mass flow of pollutant and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the output streams of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process, the various streams produced in commercial scale SRF production process are characterized chemically and, the elemental balance of SRF production process is presented. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). The elements investigated for their mass balance in SRF production process are chlorine (Cl), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg). The results showed that of the total input chlorine 60{\%} was found in the SRF stream and 35{\%} in the reject material stream and rest of 5{\%} was in fine fraction and heavy fraction streams. Of the total input arsenic content 42{\%} was found in the reject material and 32{\%} in the SRF stream and rest (i.e. 26{\%}) was found in the fine fraction stream. In case of cadmium, lead and mercury of their total input content to the process 46{\%}, 58{\%} and 45{\%} respectively was found in the SRF stream. Among the waste components of C&IW, rubber and plastic (hard) were measured to contain the highest content of chlorine i.e. 8.0 wt.{\%} (dry basis) and 3.0 wt.{\%} (dry basis) respectively. Rubber was also found to contain higher content of cadmium as compared to other waste components. Plastic (hard) was measured to contain higher content of lead (i.e. 400 mg/kg, dry basis) than other components of input waste stream. The distribution of waste components (mainly plastic (hard), rubber and to some extent textile) was found significantly more important than other components of input waste stream in defining the concentration of pollutant and potentially toxic elements in output streams of SRF production process.",
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author = "Muhammad Nasrullah and Pasi Vainikka and Janne Hannula and Markku Hurme",
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Elemental balance of SRF production process : Solid recovered fuel produced from commercial and industrial waste. / Nasrullah, Muhammad (Corresponding Author); Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku.

In: Fuel, Vol. 145, 2015, p. 1-11.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Elemental balance of SRF production process

T2 - Solid recovered fuel produced from commercial and industrial waste

AU - Nasrullah, Muhammad

AU - Vainikka, Pasi

AU - Hannula, Janne

AU - Hurme, Markku

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - In order to study the mass flow of pollutant and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the output streams of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process, the various streams produced in commercial scale SRF production process are characterized chemically and, the elemental balance of SRF production process is presented. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). The elements investigated for their mass balance in SRF production process are chlorine (Cl), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg). The results showed that of the total input chlorine 60% was found in the SRF stream and 35% in the reject material stream and rest of 5% was in fine fraction and heavy fraction streams. Of the total input arsenic content 42% was found in the reject material and 32% in the SRF stream and rest (i.e. 26%) was found in the fine fraction stream. In case of cadmium, lead and mercury of their total input content to the process 46%, 58% and 45% respectively was found in the SRF stream. Among the waste components of C&IW, rubber and plastic (hard) were measured to contain the highest content of chlorine i.e. 8.0 wt.% (dry basis) and 3.0 wt.% (dry basis) respectively. Rubber was also found to contain higher content of cadmium as compared to other waste components. Plastic (hard) was measured to contain higher content of lead (i.e. 400 mg/kg, dry basis) than other components of input waste stream. The distribution of waste components (mainly plastic (hard), rubber and to some extent textile) was found significantly more important than other components of input waste stream in defining the concentration of pollutant and potentially toxic elements in output streams of SRF production process.

AB - In order to study the mass flow of pollutant and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the output streams of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process, the various streams produced in commercial scale SRF production process are characterized chemically and, the elemental balance of SRF production process is presented. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). The elements investigated for their mass balance in SRF production process are chlorine (Cl), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg). The results showed that of the total input chlorine 60% was found in the SRF stream and 35% in the reject material stream and rest of 5% was in fine fraction and heavy fraction streams. Of the total input arsenic content 42% was found in the reject material and 32% in the SRF stream and rest (i.e. 26%) was found in the fine fraction stream. In case of cadmium, lead and mercury of their total input content to the process 46%, 58% and 45% respectively was found in the SRF stream. Among the waste components of C&IW, rubber and plastic (hard) were measured to contain the highest content of chlorine i.e. 8.0 wt.% (dry basis) and 3.0 wt.% (dry basis) respectively. Rubber was also found to contain higher content of cadmium as compared to other waste components. Plastic (hard) was measured to contain higher content of lead (i.e. 400 mg/kg, dry basis) than other components of input waste stream. The distribution of waste components (mainly plastic (hard), rubber and to some extent textile) was found significantly more important than other components of input waste stream in defining the concentration of pollutant and potentially toxic elements in output streams of SRF production process.

KW - solid fuels

KW - elemental balance

KW - potentially toxic elements

KW - process streams

KW - industrial waste

U2 - 10.1016/j.fuel.2014.12.071

DO - 10.1016/j.fuel.2014.12.071

M3 - Article

VL - 145

SP - 1

EP - 11

JO - Fuel

JF - Fuel

SN - 0016-2361

ER -