Energy and Emission Implications of Electric Vehicles Integration with Nearly and Net Zero Energy Buildings

Hassam Rehman (Corresponding Author), Jan Diriken, Ala Hasan, Stijn Verbeke, Francesco Reda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
32 Downloads (Pure)


Buildings and the mobility sectors are the two sectors that currently utilize large amount of fossil-based energy. The aim of the paper is to, critically analyse the integration of electric vehicles (EV) energy load with the building’s energy load. The qualitative and quantitative methods are used to analyse the nearly/net zero energy buildings and the mobility plans of the Europe along with the challenges of the plans. It is proposed to either include or exclude the EV load within the building’s energy load and follow the emissions calculation path, rather than energy calculation path for buildings to identify the benefits. Two real case studies in a central European climate are used to analysis the energy performance of the building with and without EV load integration and the emissions produced due to their interaction. It is shown that by replacing fossil-fuel cars with EVs within the building boundary, overall emissions can be reduced by 11–35% depending on the case study. However, the energy demand increased by 27–95% when the EV load was added with the building load. Hence, the goal to reach the nearly/net zero energy building target becomes more challenging. Therefore, the emission path can present the benefits of EV and building load integration.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6990
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 25 Oct 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • building energy performance
  • building policy
  • e-mobility regulation
  • emission reduction path
  • photovoltaic
  • renewable energy


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