Energy minimization for self-organized structure formation and actuation

Guggi Kofod, Werner Wirges, Mika Paajanen, Siegfried Bauer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

174 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An approach for creating complex structures with embedded actuation in planar manufacturing steps is presented. Self-organization and energy minimization are central to this approach, illustrated with a model based on minimization of the hyperelastic free energy strain function of a stretched elastomer and the bending elastic energy of a plastic frame. A tulip-shaped gripper structure illustrates the technological potential of the approach. Advantages are simplicity of manufacture, complexity of final structures, and the ease with which any electroactive material can be exploited as means of actuation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number081916
Number of pages3
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Volume90
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

actuation
elastic bending
optimization
elastomers
plastics
manufacturing
free energy
energy

Keywords

  • elastomers
  • free energy
  • self-adjusting systems
  • actuators
  • bending
  • elasticity
  • piezoelectricity
  • piezoelectric materials
  • grippers
  • electric actuators

Cite this

Kofod, Guggi ; Wirges, Werner ; Paajanen, Mika ; Bauer, Siegfried. / Energy minimization for self-organized structure formation and actuation. In: Applied Physics Letters. 2007 ; Vol. 90.
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title = "Energy minimization for self-organized structure formation and actuation",
abstract = "An approach for creating complex structures with embedded actuation in planar manufacturing steps is presented. Self-organization and energy minimization are central to this approach, illustrated with a model based on minimization of the hyperelastic free energy strain function of a stretched elastomer and the bending elastic energy of a plastic frame. A tulip-shaped gripper structure illustrates the technological potential of the approach. Advantages are simplicity of manufacture, complexity of final structures, and the ease with which any electroactive material can be exploited as means of actuation.",
keywords = "elastomers, free energy, self-adjusting systems, actuators, bending, elasticity, piezoelectricity, piezoelectric materials, grippers, electric actuators",
author = "Guggi Kofod and Werner Wirges and Mika Paajanen and Siegfried Bauer",
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Energy minimization for self-organized structure formation and actuation. / Kofod, Guggi; Wirges, Werner; Paajanen, Mika; Bauer, Siegfried.

In: Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 90, 081916, 2007.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Energy minimization for self-organized structure formation and actuation

AU - Kofod, Guggi

AU - Wirges, Werner

AU - Paajanen, Mika

AU - Bauer, Siegfried

N1 - Project code: 345 C5SU00888

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - An approach for creating complex structures with embedded actuation in planar manufacturing steps is presented. Self-organization and energy minimization are central to this approach, illustrated with a model based on minimization of the hyperelastic free energy strain function of a stretched elastomer and the bending elastic energy of a plastic frame. A tulip-shaped gripper structure illustrates the technological potential of the approach. Advantages are simplicity of manufacture, complexity of final structures, and the ease with which any electroactive material can be exploited as means of actuation.

AB - An approach for creating complex structures with embedded actuation in planar manufacturing steps is presented. Self-organization and energy minimization are central to this approach, illustrated with a model based on minimization of the hyperelastic free energy strain function of a stretched elastomer and the bending elastic energy of a plastic frame. A tulip-shaped gripper structure illustrates the technological potential of the approach. Advantages are simplicity of manufacture, complexity of final structures, and the ease with which any electroactive material can be exploited as means of actuation.

KW - elastomers

KW - free energy

KW - self-adjusting systems

KW - actuators

KW - bending

KW - elasticity

KW - piezoelectricity

KW - piezoelectric materials

KW - grippers

KW - electric actuators

U2 - 10.1063/1.2695785

DO - 10.1063/1.2695785

M3 - Article

VL - 90

JO - Applied Physics Letters

JF - Applied Physics Letters

SN - 0003-6951

M1 - 081916

ER -