Energy minimization for self-organized structure formation and actuation

Guggi Kofod, Werner Wirges, Mika Paajanen, Siegfried Bauer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

209 Citations (Scopus)


An approach for creating complex structures with embedded actuation in planar manufacturing steps is presented. Self-organization and energy minimization are central to this approach, illustrated with a model based on minimization of the hyperelastic free energy strain function of a stretched elastomer and the bending elastic energy of a plastic frame. A tulip-shaped gripper structure illustrates the technological potential of the approach. Advantages are simplicity of manufacture, complexity of final structures, and the ease with which any electroactive material can be exploited as means of actuation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number081916
Number of pages3
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Publication statusPublished - 2007
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • elastomers
  • free energy
  • self-adjusting systems
  • actuators
  • bending
  • elasticity
  • piezoelectricity
  • piezoelectric materials
  • grippers
  • electric actuators

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