We show that the effect of a high-temperature environment in current transport through a normal metal–insulator–superconductor tunnel junction can be described by an effective density of states in the superconductor. In the limit of a resistive low-Ohmic environment, this density of states reduces into the well-known Dynes form. Our theoretical result is supported by experiments in engineered environments. We apply our findings to improve the performance of a single-electron turnstile, a potential candidate for a metrological current source.
Pekola, J. P., Maisi, V. F., Kafanov, S., Chekurov, N., Kemppinen, A., Pashkin, Y. A., Saira, O-P., Möttönen, M., & Tsai, J. S. (2010). Environment-assisted tunneling as an origin of the dynes density of states. Physical Review Letters, 105, . https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.026803