Environmental, Health & Safety (EHS) aspects of cellulose nanomaterials (CN) and CN-based products

Heli Kangas, Marja Pitkänen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    4 Citations (Scopus)


    This paper considers the EHS aspects of cellulose nanomaterials by reviewing the published literature, considering two case studies on toxicity testing of CNFs and summarizing the progress in legislation in the field. Generally, the published results have revealed no immediate safety threats, but indications of dose-dependent toxicity and inflammatory effects have been found. Surface chemical properties and raw material source seem to have an influence on the toxicological behavior. Currently there are no specific regulations for nanomaterials, and thus their safety should be assessed as that of the corresponding bulk materials, i.e. the existing chemicals legislation and regulations based on its intended use. In addition, there are several European, national and international initiatives for developing and implementing nanomaterial-specific regulations in order to ensure their safe manufacturing and use.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)179-190
    JournalNordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2016
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • cellulose nanomaterials (CNs)
    • safety
    • human health
    • occupational exposure
    • environment
    • legislation


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