Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) Aspects of Cellulose Nanomaterials

Heli Kangas, Marja Pitkänen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Cellulose is the most abundant polymer in the world, and cellulose nanomaterials thus present a sustainable material of high interest. Cellulose nanomaterials have a wide industrial application potential in several industrial sectors. At present, cellulose nanomaterials are produced globally, the capacities ranging from small industrial to laboratory scale, and some cellulose nanomaterials containing products have been announced of entering the market. In general, cellulose nanomaterials are considered safe because their natural origin and the benign nature of the bulk forms. However, in some cases cytotoxic, genotoxic, and inflammatory effects were observed indicating that they are not inert and may have interactions with the surrounding environment. In this article the information published to-date on the safety aspects on cellulose nanomaterials is summarized. The literature is reviewed related to human health, occupational exposure, and environment and is presented in separate sections for cellulose nanofibrils, cellulose nanocrystals, and bacterial cellulose. In addition, current legislative status of regulations and recommendations applicable for nanomaterials is summarized.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLignocellulosics
Subtitle of host publicationRenewable Feedstock for (Tailored) Functional Materials and Nanotechnology
EditorsIlari Filpponen, Maria S. Peresin, Tiina Nypelö
Number of pages30
ISBN (Electronic)978-0-12-804077-5
ISBN (Print)9780128041154
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020
MoE publication typeA3 Part of a book or another research book


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