Methods. Pepsin and trypsin digested (PT) gliadin was pretreated with proteases from germinating wheat, whereafter the degradation was analyzed by HPLC-MS (high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy) and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The toxicity of cleaved PT-gliadin products was assessed in Caco-2 epithelial cells, celiac patient-derived T cells, and in human small intestinal mucosal organ culture biopsies.
Results. Proteases from germinating wheat degraded gliadin into small peptide fragments, which, unlike unprocessed PT-gliadin, did not increase epithelial permeability, induce cytoskeletal rearrangement or changes in ZO-1 expression in Caco-2 cells. Pretreated gliadin did not stimulate T cell proliferation in vitro or enhance the production of autoantibodies to culture supernatants and the activation of CD25+ lymphocytes in the organ culture to the same extent as unprocessed PT-gliadin.
Discussion. Germinating wheat enzymes reduce the toxicity of wheat gliadin in vitro and ex vivo. Further studies are justified to develop an alternative therapy for celiac disease.
- celiac disease
- germinating wheat enzymes
- organ culture