Enzymatic detoxification of gluten by germinating wheat proteases: Implications for new treatment of celiac disease

Satumarja M. Stenman, Jarkko I. Venäläinen, Katri Lindfors, Seppo Auriola, Timo Mauriala, Anu Kaukovirta-Norja, Anna Jantunen, Kaija Laurila, Shuo-Wang Qiao, Ludvig M. Sollid, Pekka T. Männistö, Katri Kaukinen (Corresponding Author), Markku Mäki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

Introduction. Currently the only treatment for celiac disease is a lifelong gluten-free diet. The diet is, however, often burdensome, and thus new treatment options are warranted. We isolated proteases from germinating wheat grain naturally meant for total digestion of wheat storage proteins and investigated whether these enzymes can diminish toxic effects of gluten in vitro and ex vivo.

Methods. Pepsin and trypsin digested (PT) gliadin was pretreated with proteases from germinating wheat, whereafter the degradation was analyzed by HPLC-MS (high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy) and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The toxicity of cleaved PT-gliadin products was assessed in Caco-2 epithelial cells, celiac patient-derived T cells, and in human small intestinal mucosal organ culture biopsies.

Results. Proteases from germinating wheat degraded gliadin into small peptide fragments, which, unlike unprocessed PT-gliadin, did not increase epithelial permeability, induce cytoskeletal rearrangement or changes in ZO-1 expression in Caco-2 cells. Pretreated gliadin did not stimulate T cell proliferation in vitro or enhance the production of autoantibodies to culture supernatants and the activation of CD25+ lymphocytes in the organ culture to the same extent as unprocessed PT-gliadin.

Discussion. Germinating wheat enzymes reduce the toxicity of wheat gliadin in vitro and ex vivo. Further studies are justified to develop an alternative therapy for celiac disease.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)390-400
JournalAnnals of Medicine
Volume41
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Gliadin
Glutens
Celiac Disease
Triticum
Peptide Hydrolases
Caco-2 Cells
Organ Culture Techniques
Therapeutics
T-Lymphocytes
Gluten-Free Diet
Peptide Fragments
Poisons
Pepsin A
Enzymes
Complementary Therapies
Lymphocyte Activation
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
Abdomen
Autoantibodies
Trypsin

Keywords

  • celiac disease
  • germinating wheat enzymes
  • gluten
  • organ culture
  • permeability

Cite this

Stenman, S. M., Venäläinen, J. I., Lindfors, K., Auriola, S., Mauriala, T., Kaukovirta-Norja, A., ... Mäki, M. (2009). Enzymatic detoxification of gluten by germinating wheat proteases: Implications for new treatment of celiac disease. Annals of Medicine, 41(5), 390-400. https://doi.org/10.1080/07853890902878138
Stenman, Satumarja M. ; Venäläinen, Jarkko I. ; Lindfors, Katri ; Auriola, Seppo ; Mauriala, Timo ; Kaukovirta-Norja, Anu ; Jantunen, Anna ; Laurila, Kaija ; Qiao, Shuo-Wang ; Sollid, Ludvig M. ; Männistö, Pekka T. ; Kaukinen, Katri ; Mäki, Markku. / Enzymatic detoxification of gluten by germinating wheat proteases : Implications for new treatment of celiac disease. In: Annals of Medicine. 2009 ; Vol. 41, No. 5. pp. 390-400.
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abstract = "Introduction. Currently the only treatment for celiac disease is a lifelong gluten-free diet. The diet is, however, often burdensome, and thus new treatment options are warranted. We isolated proteases from germinating wheat grain naturally meant for total digestion of wheat storage proteins and investigated whether these enzymes can diminish toxic effects of gluten in vitro and ex vivo.Methods. Pepsin and trypsin digested (PT) gliadin was pretreated with proteases from germinating wheat, whereafter the degradation was analyzed by HPLC-MS (high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy) and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The toxicity of cleaved PT-gliadin products was assessed in Caco-2 epithelial cells, celiac patient-derived T cells, and in human small intestinal mucosal organ culture biopsies.Results. Proteases from germinating wheat degraded gliadin into small peptide fragments, which, unlike unprocessed PT-gliadin, did not increase epithelial permeability, induce cytoskeletal rearrangement or changes in ZO-1 expression in Caco-2 cells. Pretreated gliadin did not stimulate T cell proliferation in vitro or enhance the production of autoantibodies to culture supernatants and the activation of CD25+ lymphocytes in the organ culture to the same extent as unprocessed PT-gliadin.Discussion. Germinating wheat enzymes reduce the toxicity of wheat gliadin in vitro and ex vivo. Further studies are justified to develop an alternative therapy for celiac disease.",
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Stenman, SM, Venäläinen, JI, Lindfors, K, Auriola, S, Mauriala, T, Kaukovirta-Norja, A, Jantunen, A, Laurila, K, Qiao, S-W, Sollid, LM, Männistö, PT, Kaukinen, K & Mäki, M 2009, 'Enzymatic detoxification of gluten by germinating wheat proteases: Implications for new treatment of celiac disease', Annals of Medicine, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 390-400. https://doi.org/10.1080/07853890902878138

Enzymatic detoxification of gluten by germinating wheat proteases : Implications for new treatment of celiac disease. / Stenman, Satumarja M.; Venäläinen, Jarkko I.; Lindfors, Katri; Auriola, Seppo; Mauriala, Timo; Kaukovirta-Norja, Anu; Jantunen, Anna; Laurila, Kaija; Qiao, Shuo-Wang; Sollid, Ludvig M.; Männistö, Pekka T.; Kaukinen, Katri (Corresponding Author); Mäki, Markku.

In: Annals of Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 5, 2009, p. 390-400.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Enzymatic detoxification of gluten by germinating wheat proteases

T2 - Implications for new treatment of celiac disease

AU - Stenman, Satumarja M.

AU - Venäläinen, Jarkko I.

AU - Lindfors, Katri

AU - Auriola, Seppo

AU - Mauriala, Timo

AU - Kaukovirta-Norja, Anu

AU - Jantunen, Anna

AU - Laurila, Kaija

AU - Qiao, Shuo-Wang

AU - Sollid, Ludvig M.

AU - Männistö, Pekka T.

AU - Kaukinen, Katri

AU - Mäki, Markku

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - Introduction. Currently the only treatment for celiac disease is a lifelong gluten-free diet. The diet is, however, often burdensome, and thus new treatment options are warranted. We isolated proteases from germinating wheat grain naturally meant for total digestion of wheat storage proteins and investigated whether these enzymes can diminish toxic effects of gluten in vitro and ex vivo.Methods. Pepsin and trypsin digested (PT) gliadin was pretreated with proteases from germinating wheat, whereafter the degradation was analyzed by HPLC-MS (high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy) and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The toxicity of cleaved PT-gliadin products was assessed in Caco-2 epithelial cells, celiac patient-derived T cells, and in human small intestinal mucosal organ culture biopsies.Results. Proteases from germinating wheat degraded gliadin into small peptide fragments, which, unlike unprocessed PT-gliadin, did not increase epithelial permeability, induce cytoskeletal rearrangement or changes in ZO-1 expression in Caco-2 cells. Pretreated gliadin did not stimulate T cell proliferation in vitro or enhance the production of autoantibodies to culture supernatants and the activation of CD25+ lymphocytes in the organ culture to the same extent as unprocessed PT-gliadin.Discussion. Germinating wheat enzymes reduce the toxicity of wheat gliadin in vitro and ex vivo. Further studies are justified to develop an alternative therapy for celiac disease.

AB - Introduction. Currently the only treatment for celiac disease is a lifelong gluten-free diet. The diet is, however, often burdensome, and thus new treatment options are warranted. We isolated proteases from germinating wheat grain naturally meant for total digestion of wheat storage proteins and investigated whether these enzymes can diminish toxic effects of gluten in vitro and ex vivo.Methods. Pepsin and trypsin digested (PT) gliadin was pretreated with proteases from germinating wheat, whereafter the degradation was analyzed by HPLC-MS (high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy) and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The toxicity of cleaved PT-gliadin products was assessed in Caco-2 epithelial cells, celiac patient-derived T cells, and in human small intestinal mucosal organ culture biopsies.Results. Proteases from germinating wheat degraded gliadin into small peptide fragments, which, unlike unprocessed PT-gliadin, did not increase epithelial permeability, induce cytoskeletal rearrangement or changes in ZO-1 expression in Caco-2 cells. Pretreated gliadin did not stimulate T cell proliferation in vitro or enhance the production of autoantibodies to culture supernatants and the activation of CD25+ lymphocytes in the organ culture to the same extent as unprocessed PT-gliadin.Discussion. Germinating wheat enzymes reduce the toxicity of wheat gliadin in vitro and ex vivo. Further studies are justified to develop an alternative therapy for celiac disease.

KW - celiac disease

KW - germinating wheat enzymes

KW - gluten

KW - organ culture

KW - permeability

U2 - 10.1080/07853890902878138

DO - 10.1080/07853890902878138

M3 - Article

VL - 41

SP - 390

EP - 400

JO - Annals of Medicine

JF - Annals of Medicine

SN - 0785-3890

IS - 5

ER -