ER fluids and MR materials: Basic properties and some application developments

Seija Hietanen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

3 Citations (Scopus)


Magnetorheological (MR) and electrorheological (ER) fluids belong to a family of controllable fluids, in which the flow can be controlled through the application of an electric or magnetic field. The rheological properties of controllable fluids typically depend on the concentration and density of particles, particle size and shape distribution, properties of the carrier fluids, additional additives, applied field, temperature and other factors. The interdependency of these factors is very complex, yet it is important in establishing methodologies to optimise the performance of these fluids for particular applications. Unlike ER fluids, MR fluids offer large variations in their rheological properties and their insensitivity to impurities and they require less energy consumption. Recently there has also been interest in creating controllable materials based on elastomers that are loaded with electrically conductive particles. Also a new way of using MR fluids, in which the fluid is contained in an absorbent matrix has been developed. This article gives a short overview of the field of ER fluids and MR materials, their basic properties and some application developments.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSmart materials and structures
Subtitle of host publicationVTT Research Programme 2000-2002
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
ISBN (Electronic)951-38-6279-8
ISBN (Print)951-38-6278-X
Publication statusPublished - 2003
MoE publication typeB3 Non-refereed article in conference proceedings
EventSmart materials and structures: VTT Research Program 2000–2002 - Espoo, Finland
Duration: 4 Dec 20024 Dec 2002

Publication series

SeriesVTT Symposium


SeminarSmart materials and structures


  • magnetorheological fluid
  • magnetorheological material
  • electrorheological fluid
  • applications


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