A toroidally symmetric tungsten ring inserted in the lower outer divertor of DIII-D was exposed to 25 repeated, attached L-mode shots in reverse-Bt configuration. Radial profiles of the W gross erosion flux inferred in situ from spectroscopic measurements of the WI line (400.9 nm) during these experiments are well reproduced by ERO-D3D simulations of carbon and tungsten impurity erosion, transport and redeposition in the outer divertor region. Tungsten gross erosion is mainly induced by physical sputtering of tungsten by carbon impurities. The outward radial transport of carbon impurities in the outer divertor is shown to be mainly governed by E × B drifts in the sheath region. In addition, the erosion and redeposition of carbon on tungsten, induced by the implantation of carbon into tungsten modeled with the homogeneous mixed material model, increases the effective flux of carbon impurities onto the tungsten ring (carbon recycling on tungsten). The dynamics of carbon implantation in tungsten is shown to be consistent with the plasma shot duration in DIII-D. Moreover, it is shown that the localized deposition of tungsten measured experimentally in the outboard region away from the tungsten ring is caused by the long-range radial transport of tungsten impurities in the outer divertor region induced by the interplay between poloidal and radial E × B drifts. Such experimental measurements might provide direct quantitative estimations of tungsten net erosion. The modeling and analysis of carbon and tungsten erosion and redeposition presented in this paper demonstrates that various physical mechanisms and their synergistic effects need to be taken into account to accurately describe erosion, transport and redeposition of impurities in tokamak divertors.
|Publication status||Published - 2020|
|MoE publication type||A1 Journal article-refereed|