Ethanol, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons as gasoline components in relation to gaseous emissions and particulate matter

Päivi T. Aakko-Saksa, Leena Rantanen-Kolehmainen, Eija Skyttä

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    11 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The exhaust emissions of three cars using different biofuels were explored at a temperature of -7 °C. The biofuels studied contained both low- and high-concentration ethanol blends, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons. A multipoint fuel injection car (MPFI), direct-injection spark-ignition car (DISI), and flex-fuel car (FFV) represented three different spark-ignition-car technologies. At -7 °C, substantial emissions were observed for the three cars, and differences were found among ethanol, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons as fuel components. For example, E85 resulted in high acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, ethanol, ethene, and acetylene emissions when compared to E30 or lower ethanol concentrations. Isobutanol-containing fuel showed elevated butyraldehyde, methacrolein, and isobutanol emissions. The highest particulate matter (PM) emissions, associated polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and indirect mutagenicity emissions were detected with the DISI car. Oxygenated fuels reduced PM emissions and associated priority PAH emissions in the DISI car. PM and PAH emissions from the MPFI and FFV cars were generally low. A combination of 10% ethanol and biohydrocarbon components did not change emissions significantly when compared to ethanol-only-containing E10 gasoline. Therefore, a combination of ethanol or isobutanol with biohydrocarbon components offers an option to reach high gasoline bioenergy content for E10-compatible cars.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)10489-10496
    Number of pages8
    JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
    Volume48
    Issue number17
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2 Sep 2014
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Particulate Matter
    Gas emissions
    Gasoline
    particulate matter
    automobile
    ethanol
    Ethanol
    Railroad cars
    Electric sparks
    Ignition
    Direct injection
    Hydrocarbons
    Biofuels
    Fuel injection
    hydrocarbon
    biofuel
    isobutyl alcohol
    Acetylene
    exhaust emission
    Acetaldehyde

    Cite this

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    title = "Ethanol, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons as gasoline components in relation to gaseous emissions and particulate matter",
    abstract = "The exhaust emissions of three cars using different biofuels were explored at a temperature of -7 °C. The biofuels studied contained both low- and high-concentration ethanol blends, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons. A multipoint fuel injection car (MPFI), direct-injection spark-ignition car (DISI), and flex-fuel car (FFV) represented three different spark-ignition-car technologies. At -7 °C, substantial emissions were observed for the three cars, and differences were found among ethanol, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons as fuel components. For example, E85 resulted in high acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, ethanol, ethene, and acetylene emissions when compared to E30 or lower ethanol concentrations. Isobutanol-containing fuel showed elevated butyraldehyde, methacrolein, and isobutanol emissions. The highest particulate matter (PM) emissions, associated polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and indirect mutagenicity emissions were detected with the DISI car. Oxygenated fuels reduced PM emissions and associated priority PAH emissions in the DISI car. PM and PAH emissions from the MPFI and FFV cars were generally low. A combination of 10{\%} ethanol and biohydrocarbon components did not change emissions significantly when compared to ethanol-only-containing E10 gasoline. Therefore, a combination of ethanol or isobutanol with biohydrocarbon components offers an option to reach high gasoline bioenergy content for E10-compatible cars.",
    author = "Aakko-Saksa, {P{\"a}ivi T.} and Leena Rantanen-Kolehmainen and Eija Skytt{\"a}",
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    Ethanol, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons as gasoline components in relation to gaseous emissions and particulate matter. / Aakko-Saksa, Päivi T.; Rantanen-Kolehmainen, Leena; Skyttä, Eija.

    In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 48, No. 17, 02.09.2014, p. 10489-10496.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Ethanol, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons as gasoline components in relation to gaseous emissions and particulate matter

    AU - Aakko-Saksa, Päivi T.

    AU - Rantanen-Kolehmainen, Leena

    AU - Skyttä, Eija

    PY - 2014/9/2

    Y1 - 2014/9/2

    N2 - The exhaust emissions of three cars using different biofuels were explored at a temperature of -7 °C. The biofuels studied contained both low- and high-concentration ethanol blends, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons. A multipoint fuel injection car (MPFI), direct-injection spark-ignition car (DISI), and flex-fuel car (FFV) represented three different spark-ignition-car technologies. At -7 °C, substantial emissions were observed for the three cars, and differences were found among ethanol, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons as fuel components. For example, E85 resulted in high acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, ethanol, ethene, and acetylene emissions when compared to E30 or lower ethanol concentrations. Isobutanol-containing fuel showed elevated butyraldehyde, methacrolein, and isobutanol emissions. The highest particulate matter (PM) emissions, associated polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and indirect mutagenicity emissions were detected with the DISI car. Oxygenated fuels reduced PM emissions and associated priority PAH emissions in the DISI car. PM and PAH emissions from the MPFI and FFV cars were generally low. A combination of 10% ethanol and biohydrocarbon components did not change emissions significantly when compared to ethanol-only-containing E10 gasoline. Therefore, a combination of ethanol or isobutanol with biohydrocarbon components offers an option to reach high gasoline bioenergy content for E10-compatible cars.

    AB - The exhaust emissions of three cars using different biofuels were explored at a temperature of -7 °C. The biofuels studied contained both low- and high-concentration ethanol blends, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons. A multipoint fuel injection car (MPFI), direct-injection spark-ignition car (DISI), and flex-fuel car (FFV) represented three different spark-ignition-car technologies. At -7 °C, substantial emissions were observed for the three cars, and differences were found among ethanol, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons as fuel components. For example, E85 resulted in high acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, ethanol, ethene, and acetylene emissions when compared to E30 or lower ethanol concentrations. Isobutanol-containing fuel showed elevated butyraldehyde, methacrolein, and isobutanol emissions. The highest particulate matter (PM) emissions, associated polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and indirect mutagenicity emissions were detected with the DISI car. Oxygenated fuels reduced PM emissions and associated priority PAH emissions in the DISI car. PM and PAH emissions from the MPFI and FFV cars were generally low. A combination of 10% ethanol and biohydrocarbon components did not change emissions significantly when compared to ethanol-only-containing E10 gasoline. Therefore, a combination of ethanol or isobutanol with biohydrocarbon components offers an option to reach high gasoline bioenergy content for E10-compatible cars.

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