European balancing act

Thomas Ackermann, Juan Rivier Abbad, Ivan M. Dudurych, Istvan Erlich, Hannele Holttinen, Jesper Runge Kristoffersen, Poul Ejnar Sorensen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

197 Citations (Scopus)


Wind power integration into power systems has two dimensions: an economical one related to optimization of the resources and a fair sharing of the cost, and a technical one related to security of supply. The economical dimension is first observed in the allocation and use of reserves that can incur increased costs for the power system operation. The actual impact of adding wind generation in different balancing areas can vary depending on local factors. Comparing European studies, some general aspects to reduce integration costs were identified, such as aggregating wind plant output over large geographical regions, larger balancing areas, and operating the power system closer to the delivery hour. In regard to the technical dimension, appropriate grid codes, in particular FRT and frequency control requirements, are essential to allow high wind penetration levels (>15%).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)90-103
JournalIEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2007
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • wind
  • wind energy
  • wind power
  • wind power fluctuations
  • wind power variations
  • wind variations


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