European balancing act

Thomas Ackermann, Juan Rivier Abbad, Ivan M. Dudurych, Istvan Erlich, Hannele Holttinen, Jesper Runge Kristoffersen, Poul Ejnar Sorensen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    169 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Wind power integration into power systems has two dimensions: an economical one related to optimization of the resources and a fair sharing of the cost, and a technical one related to security of supply. The economical dimension is first observed in the allocation and use of reserves that can incur increased costs for the power system operation. The actual impact of adding wind generation in different balancing areas can vary depending on local factors. Comparing European studies, some general aspects to reduce integration costs were identified, such as aggregating wind plant output over large geographical regions, larger balancing areas, and operating the power system closer to the delivery hour. In regard to the technical dimension, appropriate grid codes, in particular FRT and frequency control requirements, are essential to allow high wind penetration levels (>15%).
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)90-103
    JournalIEEE Power and Energy Magazine
    Volume5
    Issue number6
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2007
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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    Keywords

    • wind
    • wind energy
    • wind power
    • wind power fluctuations
    • wind power variations
    • wind variations

    Cite this

    Ackermann, T., Abbad, J. R., Dudurych, I. M., Erlich, I., Holttinen, H., Kristoffersen, J. R., & Sorensen, P. E. (2007). European balancing act. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, 5(6), 90-103. https://doi.org/10.1109/MPE.2007.906511