“District heating” (DH) is much less common in the United States than in Europe, where it is widely accepted as a method for providing safe, efficient, low-cost heating energy to the consumer. This study investigated and evaluated experiences with DH systems in Europe, focusing on systems in Germany and Finland, to offer recommendations for improving U.S. Army DH systems in the Continental United States (CONUS), specifically to evaluate the feasibility and economics of converting existing systems, to reduce heat and water losses, to improve thermal efficiencies, and to reduce the high cost of pipe replacement. This work investigated technical details of energy plant and DH systems, including some U.S. Army and municipal district heating systems in Germany, and recommended that CONUS Army central energy plants be investigated for conversion to cogeneration facilities, with sliding temperature-variable
flow of medium/low temperature hot water as a heating source.
|Number of pages||244|
|Publication status||Published - 2006|
|MoE publication type||D4 Published development or research report or study|
|Series||U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Report|