We present an experimental study of hybrid turnstiles with high charging energies in comparison to the superconducting gap. The device is modeled with the sequential tunneling approximation. The backtunneling effect is shown to limit the amplitude of the gate drive and thereby the maximum pumped current of the turnstile. We compare results obtained with sine and square wave drive and show how a fast rise time can suppress errors due to leakage current. Quantized current plateaus up to 160 pA are demonstrated.
Kemppinen, A., Kafanow, S., Pashkin, Y. A., Tsai, J. S., Averin, D. V., & Pekola, J. P. (2009). Experimental investigation of hybrid single-electron turnstiles with high charging energy. Applied Physics Letters, 94(17). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3127229