We validate experimentally a fluctuation relation known as generalized Jarzynski equality governing the work distribution in a feedback-controlled system. The feedback control is performed on a single electron box analogously to the original Szilard engine. In the generalized Jarzynski equality, mutual information is treated on an equal footing with the thermodynamic work. Our measurements provide the first evidence of the role of mutual information in the fluctuation theorem and thermodynamics of irreversible processes.
Koski, J. V., Maisi, V. F., Sagawa, T., & Pekola, J. P. (2014). Experimental observation of the role of mutual information in the nonequilibrium dynamics of a Maxwell demon. Physical Review Letters, 113(3), . https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.030601