Experimental observations of evacuation situations

Simo Hostikka, Tuomas Paloposki, Tuomo Rinne, Juha-Matti Saari, Timo Korhonen, Simo Heliövaara

    Research output: Book/ReportReport

    Abstract

    In fire safety engineering, the performance based design concept relies strongly on the use of computer simulations of fire and evacuation processes. The validation of the simulation tools requires experimental information on the human behaviour during the evacuation situations. In this work, two different types of evacuation situations were studied. The first type was evacuation drills which are normally carried out as part of the safety training of the staff in public buildings and workplaces. The advantage of evacuation drills is that the building (and, if necessary, also the occupants) can be equipped with monitoring devices in order to observe the events during the evacuation. The drawback of the evacuation drills is that the building occupants are normally informed beforehand which may affect the decision making processes. The second type was actual evacuations which occur every now and then. The advantage of actual evacuations is that the decision making processes are likely to be similar to what they would be in case of a real fire. The main techniques used for the observation of evacuation drills were video cameras and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). Both techniques were used in the evacuation drills in a public library and two office buildings. A large amount of information was obtained and the problems in the application of the observation techniques were identified. In particular, the results show that when the RFID technique is used, the placement of the antennas and tags is very important. With careful placement of the antennas and tags, the reliability of the RFID technique as applied in the current work may be sufficient for scientific purposes. The reliability is poor if the tags are placed under the clothing of other absorbing material. In the observation of an actual evacuation of a large shopping centre, the recordings of the surveillance cameras were used to measure the flow rates of people. The results are very promising and indicate that the collection of surveillance camera recordings from large evacuations should be started.
    Original languageEnglish
    Place of PublicationEspoo
    PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
    Number of pages53
    ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-6636-5
    Publication statusPublished - 2007
    MoE publication typeNot Eligible

    Publication series

    SeriesVTT Working Papers
    Number85

    Fingerprint

    Radio frequency identification (RFID)
    Fires
    Decision making
    Cameras
    Antennas
    Safety engineering
    Shopping centers
    Office buildings
    Video cameras
    Flow rate
    Monitoring
    Computer simulation

    Keywords

    • offices
    • public buildings
    • public libraries
    • fire safety
    • personnel
    • evacuation
    • Radio Frequency Identification
    • RFID
    • surveillance cameras
    • escape monitoring

    Cite this

    Hostikka, S., Paloposki, T., Rinne, T., Saari, J-M., Korhonen, T., & Heliövaara, S. (2007). Experimental observations of evacuation situations. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Working Papers, No. 85
    Hostikka, Simo ; Paloposki, Tuomas ; Rinne, Tuomo ; Saari, Juha-Matti ; Korhonen, Timo ; Heliövaara, Simo. / Experimental observations of evacuation situations. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2007. 53 p. (VTT Working Papers; No. 85).
    @book{6b684d8ea4284f69b3cae4782a61abcb,
    title = "Experimental observations of evacuation situations",
    abstract = "In fire safety engineering, the performance based design concept relies strongly on the use of computer simulations of fire and evacuation processes. The validation of the simulation tools requires experimental information on the human behaviour during the evacuation situations. In this work, two different types of evacuation situations were studied. The first type was evacuation drills which are normally carried out as part of the safety training of the staff in public buildings and workplaces. The advantage of evacuation drills is that the building (and, if necessary, also the occupants) can be equipped with monitoring devices in order to observe the events during the evacuation. The drawback of the evacuation drills is that the building occupants are normally informed beforehand which may affect the decision making processes. The second type was actual evacuations which occur every now and then. The advantage of actual evacuations is that the decision making processes are likely to be similar to what they would be in case of a real fire. The main techniques used for the observation of evacuation drills were video cameras and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). Both techniques were used in the evacuation drills in a public library and two office buildings. A large amount of information was obtained and the problems in the application of the observation techniques were identified. In particular, the results show that when the RFID technique is used, the placement of the antennas and tags is very important. With careful placement of the antennas and tags, the reliability of the RFID technique as applied in the current work may be sufficient for scientific purposes. The reliability is poor if the tags are placed under the clothing of other absorbing material. In the observation of an actual evacuation of a large shopping centre, the recordings of the surveillance cameras were used to measure the flow rates of people. The results are very promising and indicate that the collection of surveillance camera recordings from large evacuations should be started.",
    keywords = "offices, public buildings, public libraries, fire safety, personnel, evacuation, Radio Frequency Identification, RFID, surveillance cameras, escape monitoring",
    author = "Simo Hostikka and Tuomas Paloposki and Tuomo Rinne and Juha-Matti Saari and Timo Korhonen and Simo Heli{\"o}vaara",
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    Hostikka, S, Paloposki, T, Rinne, T, Saari, J-M, Korhonen, T & Heliövaara, S 2007, Experimental observations of evacuation situations. VTT Working Papers, no. 85, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.

    Experimental observations of evacuation situations. / Hostikka, Simo; Paloposki, Tuomas; Rinne, Tuomo; Saari, Juha-Matti; Korhonen, Timo; Heliövaara, Simo.

    Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2007. 53 p. (VTT Working Papers; No. 85).

    Research output: Book/ReportReport

    TY - BOOK

    T1 - Experimental observations of evacuation situations

    AU - Hostikka, Simo

    AU - Paloposki, Tuomas

    AU - Rinne, Tuomo

    AU - Saari, Juha-Matti

    AU - Korhonen, Timo

    AU - Heliövaara, Simo

    N1 - Project code: 1102

    PY - 2007

    Y1 - 2007

    N2 - In fire safety engineering, the performance based design concept relies strongly on the use of computer simulations of fire and evacuation processes. The validation of the simulation tools requires experimental information on the human behaviour during the evacuation situations. In this work, two different types of evacuation situations were studied. The first type was evacuation drills which are normally carried out as part of the safety training of the staff in public buildings and workplaces. The advantage of evacuation drills is that the building (and, if necessary, also the occupants) can be equipped with monitoring devices in order to observe the events during the evacuation. The drawback of the evacuation drills is that the building occupants are normally informed beforehand which may affect the decision making processes. The second type was actual evacuations which occur every now and then. The advantage of actual evacuations is that the decision making processes are likely to be similar to what they would be in case of a real fire. The main techniques used for the observation of evacuation drills were video cameras and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). Both techniques were used in the evacuation drills in a public library and two office buildings. A large amount of information was obtained and the problems in the application of the observation techniques were identified. In particular, the results show that when the RFID technique is used, the placement of the antennas and tags is very important. With careful placement of the antennas and tags, the reliability of the RFID technique as applied in the current work may be sufficient for scientific purposes. The reliability is poor if the tags are placed under the clothing of other absorbing material. In the observation of an actual evacuation of a large shopping centre, the recordings of the surveillance cameras were used to measure the flow rates of people. The results are very promising and indicate that the collection of surveillance camera recordings from large evacuations should be started.

    AB - In fire safety engineering, the performance based design concept relies strongly on the use of computer simulations of fire and evacuation processes. The validation of the simulation tools requires experimental information on the human behaviour during the evacuation situations. In this work, two different types of evacuation situations were studied. The first type was evacuation drills which are normally carried out as part of the safety training of the staff in public buildings and workplaces. The advantage of evacuation drills is that the building (and, if necessary, also the occupants) can be equipped with monitoring devices in order to observe the events during the evacuation. The drawback of the evacuation drills is that the building occupants are normally informed beforehand which may affect the decision making processes. The second type was actual evacuations which occur every now and then. The advantage of actual evacuations is that the decision making processes are likely to be similar to what they would be in case of a real fire. The main techniques used for the observation of evacuation drills were video cameras and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). Both techniques were used in the evacuation drills in a public library and two office buildings. A large amount of information was obtained and the problems in the application of the observation techniques were identified. In particular, the results show that when the RFID technique is used, the placement of the antennas and tags is very important. With careful placement of the antennas and tags, the reliability of the RFID technique as applied in the current work may be sufficient for scientific purposes. The reliability is poor if the tags are placed under the clothing of other absorbing material. In the observation of an actual evacuation of a large shopping centre, the recordings of the surveillance cameras were used to measure the flow rates of people. The results are very promising and indicate that the collection of surveillance camera recordings from large evacuations should be started.

    KW - offices

    KW - public buildings

    KW - public libraries

    KW - fire safety

    KW - personnel

    KW - evacuation

    KW - Radio Frequency Identification

    KW - RFID

    KW - surveillance cameras

    KW - escape monitoring

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    PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

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    ER -

    Hostikka S, Paloposki T, Rinne T, Saari J-M, Korhonen T, Heliövaara S. Experimental observations of evacuation situations. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2007. 53 p. (VTT Working Papers; No. 85).