Experimental studies on the revaporisation behaviour and aerosol formation of caesium under severe accident conditions

K Knebel, P D W Bottomley, V V Rondinella, Ari Auvinen, Jorma Jokiniemi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The uncontrolled release of radioactive fission products from the primary circuit of a nuclear power reactor, described as "release source term", is one of the major criteria for assessing a severe nuclear accident. One factor with the possible influences on the source term is the chemical revaporisation of fission products (especially 137Cs) after their initial deposition inside the primary circuit or containment. To study this behaviour using realistic samples of fission product deposits a lead shielded revaporisation device was designed and set-up inside a glove box. In the most recent test sequence, consisting of three experiments, samples from the Phébus FPT3 experiment was heated with 2 K/min up to 1273 K under steam, hydrogen or air. The tests showed similar results for the two experiments under oxidising conditions (steam and air) were used as process gas. The experiment using reducing conditions (pure hydrogen) showed diverse results. The results indicate that revaporisation is possible and that a switch in the atmospheric conditions (reducing to oxidising) lowers the threshold temperature which is necessary to trigger revaporisation. For the last experiment a sampling method was introduced to determine the size and chemical composition of the aerosols that form. Analysis showed a large number of particles in the diameter range 8-20 nm containing Cs, Re and Si
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings
Subtitle of host publicationInternational Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants, ICAPP 2014
PublisherAmerican Nuclear Society ANS
Pages936-942
ISBN (Print)978-163266826-4
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventInternational Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants, ICAPP 2014 - Charlotte, United States
Duration: 6 Apr 20149 Apr 2014

Conference

ConferenceInternational Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants, ICAPP 2014
Abbreviated titleICAPP 2014
CountryUnited States
CityCharlotte
Period6/04/149/04/14

Fingerprint

Cesium
Aerosols
Accidents
Fission products
Experiments
Steam
Hydrogen
Networks (circuits)
Air
Nuclear energy
Deposits
Lead
Switches
Sampling
Chemical analysis
Gases
Temperature

Cite this

Knebel, K., Bottomley, P. D. W., Rondinella, V. V., Auvinen, A., & Jokiniemi, J. (2014). Experimental studies on the revaporisation behaviour and aerosol formation of caesium under severe accident conditions. In Proceedings: International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants, ICAPP 2014 (pp. 936-942). American Nuclear Society ANS.
Knebel, K ; Bottomley, P D W ; Rondinella, V V ; Auvinen, Ari ; Jokiniemi, Jorma. / Experimental studies on the revaporisation behaviour and aerosol formation of caesium under severe accident conditions. Proceedings: International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants, ICAPP 2014. American Nuclear Society ANS, 2014. pp. 936-942
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Knebel, K, Bottomley, PDW, Rondinella, VV, Auvinen, A & Jokiniemi, J 2014, Experimental studies on the revaporisation behaviour and aerosol formation of caesium under severe accident conditions. in Proceedings: International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants, ICAPP 2014. American Nuclear Society ANS, pp. 936-942, International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants, ICAPP 2014, Charlotte, United States, 6/04/14.

Experimental studies on the revaporisation behaviour and aerosol formation of caesium under severe accident conditions. / Knebel, K; Bottomley, P D W; Rondinella, V V; Auvinen, Ari; Jokiniemi, Jorma.

Proceedings: International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants, ICAPP 2014. American Nuclear Society ANS, 2014. p. 936-942.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Experimental studies on the revaporisation behaviour and aerosol formation of caesium under severe accident conditions

AU - Knebel, K

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AU - Rondinella, V V

AU - Auvinen, Ari

AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma

PY - 2014

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N2 - The uncontrolled release of radioactive fission products from the primary circuit of a nuclear power reactor, described as "release source term", is one of the major criteria for assessing a severe nuclear accident. One factor with the possible influences on the source term is the chemical revaporisation of fission products (especially 137Cs) after their initial deposition inside the primary circuit or containment. To study this behaviour using realistic samples of fission product deposits a lead shielded revaporisation device was designed and set-up inside a glove box. In the most recent test sequence, consisting of three experiments, samples from the Phébus FPT3 experiment was heated with 2 K/min up to 1273 K under steam, hydrogen or air. The tests showed similar results for the two experiments under oxidising conditions (steam and air) were used as process gas. The experiment using reducing conditions (pure hydrogen) showed diverse results. The results indicate that revaporisation is possible and that a switch in the atmospheric conditions (reducing to oxidising) lowers the threshold temperature which is necessary to trigger revaporisation. For the last experiment a sampling method was introduced to determine the size and chemical composition of the aerosols that form. Analysis showed a large number of particles in the diameter range 8-20 nm containing Cs, Re and Si

AB - The uncontrolled release of radioactive fission products from the primary circuit of a nuclear power reactor, described as "release source term", is one of the major criteria for assessing a severe nuclear accident. One factor with the possible influences on the source term is the chemical revaporisation of fission products (especially 137Cs) after their initial deposition inside the primary circuit or containment. To study this behaviour using realistic samples of fission product deposits a lead shielded revaporisation device was designed and set-up inside a glove box. In the most recent test sequence, consisting of three experiments, samples from the Phébus FPT3 experiment was heated with 2 K/min up to 1273 K under steam, hydrogen or air. The tests showed similar results for the two experiments under oxidising conditions (steam and air) were used as process gas. The experiment using reducing conditions (pure hydrogen) showed diverse results. The results indicate that revaporisation is possible and that a switch in the atmospheric conditions (reducing to oxidising) lowers the threshold temperature which is necessary to trigger revaporisation. For the last experiment a sampling method was introduced to determine the size and chemical composition of the aerosols that form. Analysis showed a large number of particles in the diameter range 8-20 nm containing Cs, Re and Si

M3 - Conference article in proceedings

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PB - American Nuclear Society ANS

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Knebel K, Bottomley PDW, Rondinella VV, Auvinen A, Jokiniemi J. Experimental studies on the revaporisation behaviour and aerosol formation of caesium under severe accident conditions. In Proceedings: International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants, ICAPP 2014. American Nuclear Society ANS. 2014. p. 936-942