Experimental study of the cadmium effects on iodine transport in the primary circuit during severe nuclear accident

Mélany Gouëllo, Jarmo Kalilainen, Pekka Rantanen, Teemu Kärkelä, Ari Auvinen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

Abstract

In case of a severe accident in a light water reactor, iodine is one of the most important fission products in the context of reactor safety because of its significant total fuel inventory, high specific activity and radiotoxicity. Consequently, understanding its behavior under severe accident transient conditions is a major point in the optimization of the accident management and mitigation. An experimental study has been launched at VTT investigating the behavior of iodine on primary circuit surfaces during a severe nuclear accident. The paper presents results obtained from the heating of metallic cadmium and caesium iodide in a crucible at temperature below 400°C under three different atmospheres. Aerosols and gaseous species released from the reaction crucible were sampled at 150°C on filters and liquid scrubbers and analyzed with HR-ICP-MS. At first, experiments were conducted with one precursor (cadmium or caesium iodide). It was observed that cadmium is predominantly present as aerosol in all atmospheres but represents less than 1% of mass what has been recovered from the facility leaching. To the contrary, caesium iodide experiment showed that sampled iodine exists mainly as gaseous species. By comparison to one-precursor studies, a change in the behavior of element was noticed when cadmium was added to caesium iodide. Different observations let to suggest a reaction between caesium iodide and cadmium in the crucible. The reaction would lead to the formation of compound made of cadmium and iodine in condensed phase below 150°C. More gaseous iodine was found from the sampling line with Ar/H2O/H2 atmosphere than in Ar/H2O atmosphere, suggesting that the cadmium is more reactive toward iodine in hydrogen-free atmosphere.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationVolume 3: Next Generation Reactors and Advanced Reactors; Nuclear Safety and Security
PublisherAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME
Number of pages6
Volume3
ISBN (Print)978-0-7918-4593-6
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
Event22nd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, ICONE 22 - Prague, Czech Republic
Duration: 7 Jul 201411 Jul 2014

Conference

Conference22nd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, ICONE 22
Abbreviated titleICONE22
CountryCzech Republic
CityPrague
Period7/07/1411/07/14

Fingerprint

nuclear accident
iodine
cesium
cadmium
experimental study
iodide
atmosphere
accident
aerosol
effect
mitigation
experiment
leaching
hydrogen
filter
heating
liquid
sampling

Keywords

  • primary circuit
  • iodine
  • cadmium
  • severe accident

Cite this

Gouëllo, M., Kalilainen, J., Rantanen, P., Kärkelä, T., & Auvinen, A. (2014). Experimental study of the cadmium effects on iodine transport in the primary circuit during severe nuclear accident. In Volume 3: Next Generation Reactors and Advanced Reactors; Nuclear Safety and Security (Vol. 3). American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME.
Gouëllo, Mélany ; Kalilainen, Jarmo ; Rantanen, Pekka ; Kärkelä, Teemu ; Auvinen, Ari. / Experimental study of the cadmium effects on iodine transport in the primary circuit during severe nuclear accident. Volume 3: Next Generation Reactors and Advanced Reactors; Nuclear Safety and Security. Vol. 3 American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME, 2014.
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Gouëllo, M, Kalilainen, J, Rantanen, P, Kärkelä, T & Auvinen, A 2014, Experimental study of the cadmium effects on iodine transport in the primary circuit during severe nuclear accident. in Volume 3: Next Generation Reactors and Advanced Reactors; Nuclear Safety and Security. vol. 3, American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME, 22nd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, ICONE 22, Prague, Czech Republic, 7/07/14.

Experimental study of the cadmium effects on iodine transport in the primary circuit during severe nuclear accident. / Gouëllo, Mélany; Kalilainen, Jarmo; Rantanen, Pekka; Kärkelä, Teemu; Auvinen, Ari.

Volume 3: Next Generation Reactors and Advanced Reactors; Nuclear Safety and Security. Vol. 3 American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME, 2014.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Experimental study of the cadmium effects on iodine transport in the primary circuit during severe nuclear accident

AU - Gouëllo, Mélany

AU - Kalilainen, Jarmo

AU - Rantanen, Pekka

AU - Kärkelä, Teemu

AU - Auvinen, Ari

N1 - Project code: 85404, Full text not publicly open!

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - In case of a severe accident in a light water reactor, iodine is one of the most important fission products in the context of reactor safety because of its significant total fuel inventory, high specific activity and radiotoxicity. Consequently, understanding its behavior under severe accident transient conditions is a major point in the optimization of the accident management and mitigation. An experimental study has been launched at VTT investigating the behavior of iodine on primary circuit surfaces during a severe nuclear accident. The paper presents results obtained from the heating of metallic cadmium and caesium iodide in a crucible at temperature below 400°C under three different atmospheres. Aerosols and gaseous species released from the reaction crucible were sampled at 150°C on filters and liquid scrubbers and analyzed with HR-ICP-MS. At first, experiments were conducted with one precursor (cadmium or caesium iodide). It was observed that cadmium is predominantly present as aerosol in all atmospheres but represents less than 1% of mass what has been recovered from the facility leaching. To the contrary, caesium iodide experiment showed that sampled iodine exists mainly as gaseous species. By comparison to one-precursor studies, a change in the behavior of element was noticed when cadmium was added to caesium iodide. Different observations let to suggest a reaction between caesium iodide and cadmium in the crucible. The reaction would lead to the formation of compound made of cadmium and iodine in condensed phase below 150°C. More gaseous iodine was found from the sampling line with Ar/H2O/H2 atmosphere than in Ar/H2O atmosphere, suggesting that the cadmium is more reactive toward iodine in hydrogen-free atmosphere.

AB - In case of a severe accident in a light water reactor, iodine is one of the most important fission products in the context of reactor safety because of its significant total fuel inventory, high specific activity and radiotoxicity. Consequently, understanding its behavior under severe accident transient conditions is a major point in the optimization of the accident management and mitigation. An experimental study has been launched at VTT investigating the behavior of iodine on primary circuit surfaces during a severe nuclear accident. The paper presents results obtained from the heating of metallic cadmium and caesium iodide in a crucible at temperature below 400°C under three different atmospheres. Aerosols and gaseous species released from the reaction crucible were sampled at 150°C on filters and liquid scrubbers and analyzed with HR-ICP-MS. At first, experiments were conducted with one precursor (cadmium or caesium iodide). It was observed that cadmium is predominantly present as aerosol in all atmospheres but represents less than 1% of mass what has been recovered from the facility leaching. To the contrary, caesium iodide experiment showed that sampled iodine exists mainly as gaseous species. By comparison to one-precursor studies, a change in the behavior of element was noticed when cadmium was added to caesium iodide. Different observations let to suggest a reaction between caesium iodide and cadmium in the crucible. The reaction would lead to the formation of compound made of cadmium and iodine in condensed phase below 150°C. More gaseous iodine was found from the sampling line with Ar/H2O/H2 atmosphere than in Ar/H2O atmosphere, suggesting that the cadmium is more reactive toward iodine in hydrogen-free atmosphere.

KW - primary circuit

KW - iodine

KW - cadmium

KW - severe accident

M3 - Conference article in proceedings

SN - 978-0-7918-4593-6

VL - 3

BT - Volume 3: Next Generation Reactors and Advanced Reactors; Nuclear Safety and Security

PB - American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME

ER -

Gouëllo M, Kalilainen J, Rantanen P, Kärkelä T, Auvinen A. Experimental study of the cadmium effects on iodine transport in the primary circuit during severe nuclear accident. In Volume 3: Next Generation Reactors and Advanced Reactors; Nuclear Safety and Security. Vol. 3. American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME. 2014