Experimenting with Circular Business Models—A Process-Oriented Approach

Maria Antikainen, Nancy Bocken

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleScientificpeer-review


In this chapter, Antikainen and Bocken illustrate how a 5-step circular business model experimentation process model approach can be used. The main challenges across different phases are identified. Based on a case study they identify challenges related to feasibility of the needed technology, environmental challenges and challenges related to the scalability. Also, the collaboration between company and other stakeholders as well as with communication and visibility were identified as relevant challenges. The approach helps organisations to focus on the most relevant issues that are also most prone for challenges during the process offering also very practical tools. To conclude, various future research paths are identified for this new research field.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInnovation for Sustainability
Subtitle of host publicationBusiness Transformations Towards a Better World
EditorsNancy Bocken, Paavo Ritala, Laura Albareda, Robert Verburg
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-319-97385-2
ISBN (Print)978-3-319-97384-5
Publication statusPublished - 23 Feb 2019
MoE publication typeA3 Part of a book or another research book


  • sustainability
  • sustainable business
  • experimentations
  • circular economy

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    Antikainen, M., & Bocken, N. (2019). Experimenting with Circular Business Models—A Process-Oriented Approach. In N. Bocken, P. Ritala, L. Albareda, & R. Verburg (Eds.), Innovation for Sustainability: Business Transformations Towards a Better World (pp. 353-374). Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-97385-2