Exploitation of Transparent Conductive Oxides in the Implementation of a Window-Integrated Wireless Sensor Node

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Exploitation of transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) to implement an energy-autonomous sensor node for a wireless sensor network is studied and a practical solution presented. In the practical implementations, flexible and rigid substrates, i.e., polyimide and glass, are coated with TCO, namely, aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO). AZO-coated flexible substrates are used to form thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that produce electricity for the sensor electronics of the node from thermal gradients on a window. As the second solution to utilize AZO, its conductive properties are exploited to implement transparent antennas for the sensor node. Antennas for a UHF RFID transponder and the Bluetooth radio of the node are implemented. A prototype of a flexible transparent TEG, with the area of 67 cm 2 when folded, was measured to produce power of 1.6μW with a temperature difference of 43 K. A radiation efficiency of -9.1 dB was measured for the transparent RFID antenna prototype with the center frequency of 900 MHz. Radiation efficiencies between -3.8 and -0.4 dB, depending on the substrate, were obtained for the 2.45 GHz Bluetooth antenna.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8401879
Pages (from-to)7193-7202
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Sensors Journal
Volume18
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

exploitation
Sensor nodes
antennas
Zinc oxide
zinc oxides
Antennas
thermoelectric generators
Oxides
oxides
sensors
Bluetooth
Aluminum
Radio frequency identification (RFID)
Substrates
prototypes
aluminum
Radiation
transponders
Transponders
radiation

Keywords

  • Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO)
  • Bluetooth
  • energy harvesting
  • internet of things (IoT)
  • thermal gradient
  • thermoelectric generator (TEG)
  • thin-film
  • transparent antennas
  • transparent conductive oxide (TCO)
  • UHF RFID
  • wireless sensor network (WSN)

Cite this

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title = "Exploitation of Transparent Conductive Oxides in the Implementation of a Window-Integrated Wireless Sensor Node",
abstract = "Exploitation of transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) to implement an energy-autonomous sensor node for a wireless sensor network is studied and a practical solution presented. In the practical implementations, flexible and rigid substrates, i.e., polyimide and glass, are coated with TCO, namely, aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO). AZO-coated flexible substrates are used to form thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that produce electricity for the sensor electronics of the node from thermal gradients on a window. As the second solution to utilize AZO, its conductive properties are exploited to implement transparent antennas for the sensor node. Antennas for a UHF RFID transponder and the Bluetooth radio of the node are implemented. A prototype of a flexible transparent TEG, with the area of 67 cm 2 when folded, was measured to produce power of 1.6μW with a temperature difference of 43 K. A radiation efficiency of -9.1 dB was measured for the transparent RFID antenna prototype with the center frequency of 900 MHz. Radiation efficiencies between -3.8 and -0.4 dB, depending on the substrate, were obtained for the 2.45 GHz Bluetooth antenna.",
keywords = "Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO), Bluetooth, energy harvesting, internet of things (IoT), thermal gradient, thermoelectric generator (TEG), thin-film, transparent antennas, transparent conductive oxide (TCO), UHF RFID, wireless sensor network (WSN)",
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Exploitation of Transparent Conductive Oxides in the Implementation of a Window-Integrated Wireless Sensor Node. / Jaakkola, Kaarle; Tappura, Kirsi.

In: IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 18, No. 17, 8401879, 01.09.2018, p. 7193-7202.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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