Exploratory tritium breeding performance study on a water cooled lead ceramic breeder blanket for EU DEMO using Serpent-2

Yudong Lu, Minyou Ye (Corresponding Author), Guangming Zhou (Corresponding Author), Francisco A. Hernández, Jaakko Leppänen, Yuan Hu

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Innovative Water cooled Lead Ceramic Breeder (WLCB) blanket concepts are being developed at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to explore alternative options for the European demonstration fusion power plant (DEMO). Compared to the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed blanket (HCPB, which is one of the two driver blanket concepts of the European DEMO), Lead/ Lead-alloy is used as neutron multiplier instead of Be/Be-alloy and pressurized subcooled water is used as coolant instead of Helium in the WLCB. The tritium self-sufficiency is the vital function that a Breeding Blanket has to achieve. The absorption of neutrons by water leads to a decrease in the number of neutrons, so the requirement to improve the tritium breeding capacity of the water-cooled blankets is particularly prominent. The Monte Carlo neutron transport code Serpent-2 developed by VTT in Finland has already been benchmarked to be applicable to neutronics calculations in the fusion reactors in a previous study. In this paper, an exploratory TBR study on Water cooled Lead Ceramic Breeder Blanket is presented.
Original languageEnglish
Article number101050
JournalNuclear Materials and Energy
Early online date3 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


This work has been completed during Yudong Lu’s research stay at KIT, Germany. This work has partly been funded by the National Key Research, Development Program of China (Grant No.: 2017YFE0301501 and No.: 2017YFE0301305 ) and China Scholarship Council (No.: 201806340163 ). This work has also received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014–2018 and 2019–2020 under grant agreement No 633053.


  • Neutronics
  • Serpent-2
  • Tritium breeding
  • Water cooled Lead Ceramic Breeder


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