Exposure Determination in Gamma-Ray Radiography for Mammography Applications

Eslam M. Taha, Abdulsalam M. Alhawsawi, Mohammed Siddig, Ahmed Balamesh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Previous studies explored the feasibility of using gamma-ray as an alternative to X-ray in medical imaging. The feasibility studies reported that gamma radiography could be an effective alternative to X-ray radiography. Exposure is the factor that decides noise level and contrast quality in the produced image; the two crucial factors for the diagnosis and patient safety. This research aims to foster the feasibility of gamma-ray mammography by proposing a method for exposure determination. Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission toolkit was used to simulate the required exposure on the American College of Radiology Mammography phantom using photon energies of 17.5, 19, 20, 22, 23.5, 25, 26, 27.5, and 30 keV. The quality of the produced image was evaluated against a reference experimental X-ray mammographic image. A visual assessment procedure was adopted to determine the minimum contrast-to-noise ratio required to detect the various sets of phantom features. Based on the visual assessment, a method for exposure determination was established and verified. The results will support the application of radioisotopes for mammography.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7583-7591
Number of pages9
JournalArabian Journal for Science and Engineering
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Gamma-ray imaging
  • GATE simulation
  • Mammography
  • Radiography
  • X-ray


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