Extensive dry ball milling of wheat and rye bran leads to in situ production of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides through nanoscale fragmentation.

Valerie Van Craeyveld, Ulla Holopainen, Emilia Selinheimo, Kaisa Poutanen, Jan A Delcour, Christophe M Courtin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study investigated the potential of ball milling as a dry process for in situ production of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) in arabinoxylan (AX)-rich wheat and rye bran. An extensive lab-scale ball mill treatment (120 h, 50% jar volume capacity) increased the wheat bran water-extractable arabinoxylan (WE-AX) level from 4% (untreated bran) to 61% of the wheat bran AX. Extractable AX fragments had an arabinose/xylose ratio (A/X ratio) of 0.72 and a molecular mass (MM) of 15 kDa. Ball milling of rye bran gave rise to similar results, with the A/X ratio of the extractable AX being considerably lower (0.51). Optimization of the ball mill treatment by varying the degree of filling of the milling jar permitted us to obtain equally high WE-AX levels (>70%) in wheat and rye bran within a 24 h ball-milling period. Ball milling at optimal conditions (24 h, 16% jar volume capacity) yielded wheat bran AXOS, with an A/X ratio of 0.65 and a MM of 6 kDa. Ball milling (24 h, 50% jar volume capacity) of pericarp-enriched wheat bran increased the WE-AX level from 1% (untreated pericarp) to 63%. The extractable material had a high A/X ratio (0.97) and a low MM (5 kDa). Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the extensive ball mill treatment led to the almost complete disappearance of discernible tissue structures in the ball-milled material, indicating bran particle size reductions down to the nanoscale level. It further visualized the aggregation of the treated material. These results show that AXOS can be produced in situ from wheat or rye bran in a single-stage dry milling process, rendering a wet extraction step redundant. The higher A/X ratio of the obtained AXOS than of enzymically produced wheat bran-derived AXOS offers perspectives for the production of a wide range of AXOS structures. Moreover, ball milling makes upgrading of the low-value pericarp layer feasible.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8467-8473
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Volume57
Issue number18
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2009
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

rye bran
arabinoxylan
Dietary Fiber
Ball milling
wheat bran
Oligosaccharides
oligosaccharides
Arabinose
Xylose
arabinose
xylose
jars
Ball mills
Molecular mass
pericarp
bran
molecular weight
Secale
Water
dry milling

Keywords

  • Arabinose
  • Arabinose: analysis
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Dietary Fiber: analysis
  • Food Handling
  • Food Handling: methods
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Oligosaccharides: chemistry
  • Particle Size
  • Secale cereale
  • Secale cereale: chemistry
  • Secale cereale: ultrastructure
  • Seeds
  • Seeds: chemistry
  • Seeds: ultrastructure
  • Triticum
  • Triticum: chemistry
  • Triticum: ultrastructure
  • Xylans
  • Xylans: analysis
  • Xylans: chemistry
  • Xylose
  • Xylose: analysis

Cite this

@article{459a3add2b954987a22e0c672a8ba573,
title = "Extensive dry ball milling of wheat and rye bran leads to in situ production of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides through nanoscale fragmentation.",
abstract = "This study investigated the potential of ball milling as a dry process for in situ production of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) in arabinoxylan (AX)-rich wheat and rye bran. An extensive lab-scale ball mill treatment (120 h, 50{\%} jar volume capacity) increased the wheat bran water-extractable arabinoxylan (WE-AX) level from 4{\%} (untreated bran) to 61{\%} of the wheat bran AX. Extractable AX fragments had an arabinose/xylose ratio (A/X ratio) of 0.72 and a molecular mass (MM) of 15 kDa. Ball milling of rye bran gave rise to similar results, with the A/X ratio of the extractable AX being considerably lower (0.51). Optimization of the ball mill treatment by varying the degree of filling of the milling jar permitted us to obtain equally high WE-AX levels (>70{\%}) in wheat and rye bran within a 24 h ball-milling period. Ball milling at optimal conditions (24 h, 16{\%} jar volume capacity) yielded wheat bran AXOS, with an A/X ratio of 0.65 and a MM of 6 kDa. Ball milling (24 h, 50{\%} jar volume capacity) of pericarp-enriched wheat bran increased the WE-AX level from 1{\%} (untreated pericarp) to 63{\%}. The extractable material had a high A/X ratio (0.97) and a low MM (5 kDa). Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the extensive ball mill treatment led to the almost complete disappearance of discernible tissue structures in the ball-milled material, indicating bran particle size reductions down to the nanoscale level. It further visualized the aggregation of the treated material. These results show that AXOS can be produced in situ from wheat or rye bran in a single-stage dry milling process, rendering a wet extraction step redundant. The higher A/X ratio of the obtained AXOS than of enzymically produced wheat bran-derived AXOS offers perspectives for the production of a wide range of AXOS structures. Moreover, ball milling makes upgrading of the low-value pericarp layer feasible.",
keywords = "Arabinose, Arabinose: analysis, Dietary Fiber, Dietary Fiber: analysis, Food Handling, Food Handling: methods, Oligosaccharides, Oligosaccharides: chemistry, Particle Size, Secale cereale, Secale cereale: chemistry, Secale cereale: ultrastructure, Seeds, Seeds: chemistry, Seeds: ultrastructure, Triticum, Triticum: chemistry, Triticum: ultrastructure, Xylans, Xylans: analysis, Xylans: chemistry, Xylose, Xylose: analysis",
author = "{Van Craeyveld}, Valerie and Ulla Holopainen and Emilia Selinheimo and Kaisa Poutanen and Delcour, {Jan A} and Courtin, {Christophe M}",
year = "2009",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1021/jf901870r",
language = "English",
volume = "57",
pages = "8467--8473",
journal = "Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry",
issn = "0021-8561",
publisher = "American Chemical Society ACS",
number = "18",

}

Extensive dry ball milling of wheat and rye bran leads to in situ production of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides through nanoscale fragmentation. / Van Craeyveld, Valerie; Holopainen, Ulla; Selinheimo, Emilia; Poutanen, Kaisa; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M.

In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 57, No. 18, 09.2009, p. 8467-8473.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Extensive dry ball milling of wheat and rye bran leads to in situ production of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides through nanoscale fragmentation.

AU - Van Craeyveld, Valerie

AU - Holopainen, Ulla

AU - Selinheimo, Emilia

AU - Poutanen, Kaisa

AU - Delcour, Jan A

AU - Courtin, Christophe M

PY - 2009/9

Y1 - 2009/9

N2 - This study investigated the potential of ball milling as a dry process for in situ production of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) in arabinoxylan (AX)-rich wheat and rye bran. An extensive lab-scale ball mill treatment (120 h, 50% jar volume capacity) increased the wheat bran water-extractable arabinoxylan (WE-AX) level from 4% (untreated bran) to 61% of the wheat bran AX. Extractable AX fragments had an arabinose/xylose ratio (A/X ratio) of 0.72 and a molecular mass (MM) of 15 kDa. Ball milling of rye bran gave rise to similar results, with the A/X ratio of the extractable AX being considerably lower (0.51). Optimization of the ball mill treatment by varying the degree of filling of the milling jar permitted us to obtain equally high WE-AX levels (>70%) in wheat and rye bran within a 24 h ball-milling period. Ball milling at optimal conditions (24 h, 16% jar volume capacity) yielded wheat bran AXOS, with an A/X ratio of 0.65 and a MM of 6 kDa. Ball milling (24 h, 50% jar volume capacity) of pericarp-enriched wheat bran increased the WE-AX level from 1% (untreated pericarp) to 63%. The extractable material had a high A/X ratio (0.97) and a low MM (5 kDa). Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the extensive ball mill treatment led to the almost complete disappearance of discernible tissue structures in the ball-milled material, indicating bran particle size reductions down to the nanoscale level. It further visualized the aggregation of the treated material. These results show that AXOS can be produced in situ from wheat or rye bran in a single-stage dry milling process, rendering a wet extraction step redundant. The higher A/X ratio of the obtained AXOS than of enzymically produced wheat bran-derived AXOS offers perspectives for the production of a wide range of AXOS structures. Moreover, ball milling makes upgrading of the low-value pericarp layer feasible.

AB - This study investigated the potential of ball milling as a dry process for in situ production of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) in arabinoxylan (AX)-rich wheat and rye bran. An extensive lab-scale ball mill treatment (120 h, 50% jar volume capacity) increased the wheat bran water-extractable arabinoxylan (WE-AX) level from 4% (untreated bran) to 61% of the wheat bran AX. Extractable AX fragments had an arabinose/xylose ratio (A/X ratio) of 0.72 and a molecular mass (MM) of 15 kDa. Ball milling of rye bran gave rise to similar results, with the A/X ratio of the extractable AX being considerably lower (0.51). Optimization of the ball mill treatment by varying the degree of filling of the milling jar permitted us to obtain equally high WE-AX levels (>70%) in wheat and rye bran within a 24 h ball-milling period. Ball milling at optimal conditions (24 h, 16% jar volume capacity) yielded wheat bran AXOS, with an A/X ratio of 0.65 and a MM of 6 kDa. Ball milling (24 h, 50% jar volume capacity) of pericarp-enriched wheat bran increased the WE-AX level from 1% (untreated pericarp) to 63%. The extractable material had a high A/X ratio (0.97) and a low MM (5 kDa). Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the extensive ball mill treatment led to the almost complete disappearance of discernible tissue structures in the ball-milled material, indicating bran particle size reductions down to the nanoscale level. It further visualized the aggregation of the treated material. These results show that AXOS can be produced in situ from wheat or rye bran in a single-stage dry milling process, rendering a wet extraction step redundant. The higher A/X ratio of the obtained AXOS than of enzymically produced wheat bran-derived AXOS offers perspectives for the production of a wide range of AXOS structures. Moreover, ball milling makes upgrading of the low-value pericarp layer feasible.

KW - Arabinose

KW - Arabinose: analysis

KW - Dietary Fiber

KW - Dietary Fiber: analysis

KW - Food Handling

KW - Food Handling: methods

KW - Oligosaccharides

KW - Oligosaccharides: chemistry

KW - Particle Size

KW - Secale cereale

KW - Secale cereale: chemistry

KW - Secale cereale: ultrastructure

KW - Seeds

KW - Seeds: chemistry

KW - Seeds: ultrastructure

KW - Triticum

KW - Triticum: chemistry

KW - Triticum: ultrastructure

KW - Xylans

KW - Xylans: analysis

KW - Xylans: chemistry

KW - Xylose

KW - Xylose: analysis

U2 - 10.1021/jf901870r

DO - 10.1021/jf901870r

M3 - Article

VL - 57

SP - 8467

EP - 8473

JO - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

JF - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

SN - 0021-8561

IS - 18

ER -