Extinguishment of liquid fires with sprinklers and water sprays: Analysis of the test results

Matti Kokkala

Research output: Book/ReportReport


A series of extinguishing tests was carded out on ten liquids with a flash point in the range of -6 °C to 234 °C applying seven different sprinklers or nozzles. Pool size was varied within the range 0.4 m2 - 12 m2, and the nozzle height within the range 3 m-8 m. In this publication the results of the tests are analysed. Free bum data are considered in detail. Observations and effects of pool size, nozzle type, flash point, application rate, preburn time and nozzle height are discussed. Recommendations are made on the required application rates. A method of testing the applicability of sprinklers or nozzles against liquid pool or spill fires is proposed.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages66
ISBN (Print)951-38-3718-1
Publication statusPublished - 1990
MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

Publication series

SeriesValtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus. Tutkimuksia - Research Reports


  • extinguishing
  • fire extinguishers
  • sprinklers
  • fire protection
  • nozzles
  • sprayers
  • liquids
  • analyzing
  • methods
  • proposals
  • flash point
  • tests


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