Tyrosinase (EC 188.8.131.52) is a widely distributed type 3 copper enzyme participating in essential biological functions. Tyrosinases are potential biotools as biosensors or protein crosslinkers. Understanding the reaction mechanism of tyrosinases is fundamental for developing tyrosinase-based applications. The reaction mechanisms of tyrosinases from Trichoderma reesei (TrT) and Agaricus bisporus (AbT) were analyzed using three diphenolic substrates: caffeic acid, L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine), and catechol. With caffeic acid the oxidation rates of TrT and AbT were comparable; whereas with L-DOPA or catechol a fast decrease in the oxidation rates was observed in the TrT-catalyzed reactions only, suggesting end product inhibition of TrT. Dopachrome was the only reaction end product formed by TrT- or AbT-catalyzed oxidation of L-DOPA. We produced dopachrome by AbT-catalyzed oxidation of L-DOPA and analyzed the TrT end product (i.e. dopachrome) inhibition by oxygen consumption measurement. In the presence of 1.5 mM dopachrome the oxygen consumption rate of TrT on 8 mM L-DOPA was halved. The type of inhibition of potential inhibitors for TrT was studied using p-coumaric acid (monophenol) and caffeic acid (diphenol) as substrates. The strongest inhibitors were potassium cyanide for the TrT-monophenolase activity, and kojic acid for the TrT-diphenolase activity. The lag period related to the TrT-catalyzed oxidation of monophenol was prolonged by kojic acid, sodium azide and arbutin; contrary it was reduced by potassium cyanide. Furthermore, sodium azide slowed down the initial oxidation rate of TrT- and AbT-catalyzed oxidation of L-DOPA or catechol, but it also formed adducts with the reaction end products, i.e., dopachrome and o-benzoquinone.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Proteins and Proteomics|
|Publication status||Published - 2012|
|MoE publication type||A1 Journal article-refereed|
- Trichoderma reesei
- Agaricus bisporus
- end product inhibition