Fabrication of optical waveguides by imprinting: Usage of positive tone resist as a mould for UV-curable polymer

Jussi Hiltunen (Corresponding Author), Marianne Hiltunen, Pentti Karioja, Jarkko Puustinen, Jyrki Lappalainen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Optical ridge type waveguides based on UV-curable polymer were fabricated by imprinting method. Positive tone resist patterned on a silicon wafer was used as a mould. The characterization of waveguides was carried out by coupling TE-polarized light from a tapered fiber into a waveguide with 30 mm length and mapping the intensity distribution with another tapered fiber at the output facet of a waveguide. Proper single- or multimode operation was observed depending on the waveguide width being either 2 µm or 6 µm. Experimental observations on the mode profiles were also supported by the simulation results. Average power transmissions of 32% at 1530 nm wavelength and 45% at 1310 nm wavelength were characterized. The results suggest that the simple mould fabrication process might be a useful technique for device prototyping and that the performance of replicated waveguides can meet the requirements for certain applications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)22813-22822
Number of pages10
JournalOptics Express
Volume17
Issue number25
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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optical waveguides
waveguides
fabrication
polymers
fibers
power transmission
wavelengths
polarized light
ridges
flat surfaces
wafers
requirements
output
silicon
profiles
simulation

Keywords

  • Polymer waveguides
  • waveguides
  • microstructure fabrication
  • materials processing

Cite this

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title = "Fabrication of optical waveguides by imprinting: Usage of positive tone resist as a mould for UV-curable polymer",
abstract = "Optical ridge type waveguides based on UV-curable polymer were fabricated by imprinting method. Positive tone resist patterned on a silicon wafer was used as a mould. The characterization of waveguides was carried out by coupling TE-polarized light from a tapered fiber into a waveguide with 30 mm length and mapping the intensity distribution with another tapered fiber at the output facet of a waveguide. Proper single- or multimode operation was observed depending on the waveguide width being either 2 µm or 6 µm. Experimental observations on the mode profiles were also supported by the simulation results. Average power transmissions of 32{\%} at 1530 nm wavelength and 45{\%} at 1310 nm wavelength were characterized. The results suggest that the simple mould fabrication process might be a useful technique for device prototyping and that the performance of replicated waveguides can meet the requirements for certain applications.",
keywords = "Polymer waveguides, waveguides, microstructure fabrication, materials processing",
author = "Jussi Hiltunen and Marianne Hiltunen and Pentti Karioja and Jarkko Puustinen and Jyrki Lappalainen",
year = "2009",
doi = "doi:10.1364/OE.17.022813",
language = "English",
volume = "17",
pages = "22813--22822",
journal = "Optics Express",
issn = "1094-4087",
publisher = "Optical Society of America OSA",
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Fabrication of optical waveguides by imprinting : Usage of positive tone resist as a mould for UV-curable polymer. / Hiltunen, Jussi (Corresponding Author); Hiltunen, Marianne; Karioja, Pentti; Puustinen, Jarkko; Lappalainen, Jyrki.

In: Optics Express, Vol. 17, No. 25, 2009, p. 22813-22822.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fabrication of optical waveguides by imprinting

T2 - Usage of positive tone resist as a mould for UV-curable polymer

AU - Hiltunen, Jussi

AU - Hiltunen, Marianne

AU - Karioja, Pentti

AU - Puustinen, Jarkko

AU - Lappalainen, Jyrki

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - Optical ridge type waveguides based on UV-curable polymer were fabricated by imprinting method. Positive tone resist patterned on a silicon wafer was used as a mould. The characterization of waveguides was carried out by coupling TE-polarized light from a tapered fiber into a waveguide with 30 mm length and mapping the intensity distribution with another tapered fiber at the output facet of a waveguide. Proper single- or multimode operation was observed depending on the waveguide width being either 2 µm or 6 µm. Experimental observations on the mode profiles were also supported by the simulation results. Average power transmissions of 32% at 1530 nm wavelength and 45% at 1310 nm wavelength were characterized. The results suggest that the simple mould fabrication process might be a useful technique for device prototyping and that the performance of replicated waveguides can meet the requirements for certain applications.

AB - Optical ridge type waveguides based on UV-curable polymer were fabricated by imprinting method. Positive tone resist patterned on a silicon wafer was used as a mould. The characterization of waveguides was carried out by coupling TE-polarized light from a tapered fiber into a waveguide with 30 mm length and mapping the intensity distribution with another tapered fiber at the output facet of a waveguide. Proper single- or multimode operation was observed depending on the waveguide width being either 2 µm or 6 µm. Experimental observations on the mode profiles were also supported by the simulation results. Average power transmissions of 32% at 1530 nm wavelength and 45% at 1310 nm wavelength were characterized. The results suggest that the simple mould fabrication process might be a useful technique for device prototyping and that the performance of replicated waveguides can meet the requirements for certain applications.

KW - Polymer waveguides

KW - waveguides

KW - microstructure fabrication

KW - materials processing

U2 - doi:10.1364/OE.17.022813

DO - doi:10.1364/OE.17.022813

M3 - Article

VL - 17

SP - 22813

EP - 22822

JO - Optics Express

JF - Optics Express

SN - 1094-4087

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