Facile method for stiff, tough, and strong nanocomposites by direct exfoliation of multilayered graphene into native nanocellulose matrix

Jani-Markus Malho, Päivi Laaksonen (Corresponding Author), Andreas Walther, Olli Ikkala, Markus Linder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

78 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) is a natural fibrillar material with exceptionally high mechanical properties. It has, however, been exceedingly difficult to achieve nanocomposites with drastically improved mechanical properties by dispersing NFC as random networks to polymer matrices, even using compatibilization. We show nanocomposites consisting of aligned assemblies of multilayered graphene and NFC with excellent tensile mechanical properties without any surface treatments. The optimum composition was found at 1.25 wt % graphene multilayers, giving a Young’s modulus of 16.9 GPa, ultimate strength of 351 MPa, strain of 12%, and work-of-fracture of 22.3 MJ m–3. This combines high strength with relatively high toughness and is obtained by direct exfoliation of graphite within aqueous hydrogels of NFC where an optimum sonication power is described. The results suggest the existence of an attractive interaction between multilayered graphene flakes and cellulose. Aligned assemblies are obtained by removal of water by filtration. The concept can be beneficial for applications because it results in high mechanical properties by a simple and environmentally green process.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1093-1099
JournalBiomacromolecules
Volume13
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Graphite
Cellulose
Graphene
Nanocomposites
Mechanical properties
Hydrogels
Sonication
Compatibilizers
Polymer matrix
Toughness
Surface treatment
Multilayers
Elastic moduli
Water
Chemical analysis

Cite this

Malho, Jani-Markus ; Laaksonen, Päivi ; Walther, Andreas ; Ikkala, Olli ; Linder, Markus. / Facile method for stiff, tough, and strong nanocomposites by direct exfoliation of multilayered graphene into native nanocellulose matrix. In: Biomacromolecules. 2012 ; Vol. 13, No. 4. pp. 1093-1099.
@article{02368962c9ff4afb96840fe2cbc8fffd,
title = "Facile method for stiff, tough, and strong nanocomposites by direct exfoliation of multilayered graphene into native nanocellulose matrix",
abstract = "Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) is a natural fibrillar material with exceptionally high mechanical properties. It has, however, been exceedingly difficult to achieve nanocomposites with drastically improved mechanical properties by dispersing NFC as random networks to polymer matrices, even using compatibilization. We show nanocomposites consisting of aligned assemblies of multilayered graphene and NFC with excellent tensile mechanical properties without any surface treatments. The optimum composition was found at 1.25 wt {\%} graphene multilayers, giving a Young’s modulus of 16.9 GPa, ultimate strength of 351 MPa, strain of 12{\%}, and work-of-fracture of 22.3 MJ m–3. This combines high strength with relatively high toughness and is obtained by direct exfoliation of graphite within aqueous hydrogels of NFC where an optimum sonication power is described. The results suggest the existence of an attractive interaction between multilayered graphene flakes and cellulose. Aligned assemblies are obtained by removal of water by filtration. The concept can be beneficial for applications because it results in high mechanical properties by a simple and environmentally green process.",
author = "Jani-Markus Malho and P{\"a}ivi Laaksonen and Andreas Walther and Olli Ikkala and Markus Linder",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.1021/bm2018189",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
pages = "1093--1099",
journal = "Biomacromolecules",
issn = "1525-7797",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "4",

}

Facile method for stiff, tough, and strong nanocomposites by direct exfoliation of multilayered graphene into native nanocellulose matrix. / Malho, Jani-Markus; Laaksonen, Päivi (Corresponding Author); Walther, Andreas; Ikkala, Olli; Linder, Markus.

In: Biomacromolecules, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2012, p. 1093-1099.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Facile method for stiff, tough, and strong nanocomposites by direct exfoliation of multilayered graphene into native nanocellulose matrix

AU - Malho, Jani-Markus

AU - Laaksonen, Päivi

AU - Walther, Andreas

AU - Ikkala, Olli

AU - Linder, Markus

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) is a natural fibrillar material with exceptionally high mechanical properties. It has, however, been exceedingly difficult to achieve nanocomposites with drastically improved mechanical properties by dispersing NFC as random networks to polymer matrices, even using compatibilization. We show nanocomposites consisting of aligned assemblies of multilayered graphene and NFC with excellent tensile mechanical properties without any surface treatments. The optimum composition was found at 1.25 wt % graphene multilayers, giving a Young’s modulus of 16.9 GPa, ultimate strength of 351 MPa, strain of 12%, and work-of-fracture of 22.3 MJ m–3. This combines high strength with relatively high toughness and is obtained by direct exfoliation of graphite within aqueous hydrogels of NFC where an optimum sonication power is described. The results suggest the existence of an attractive interaction between multilayered graphene flakes and cellulose. Aligned assemblies are obtained by removal of water by filtration. The concept can be beneficial for applications because it results in high mechanical properties by a simple and environmentally green process.

AB - Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) is a natural fibrillar material with exceptionally high mechanical properties. It has, however, been exceedingly difficult to achieve nanocomposites with drastically improved mechanical properties by dispersing NFC as random networks to polymer matrices, even using compatibilization. We show nanocomposites consisting of aligned assemblies of multilayered graphene and NFC with excellent tensile mechanical properties without any surface treatments. The optimum composition was found at 1.25 wt % graphene multilayers, giving a Young’s modulus of 16.9 GPa, ultimate strength of 351 MPa, strain of 12%, and work-of-fracture of 22.3 MJ m–3. This combines high strength with relatively high toughness and is obtained by direct exfoliation of graphite within aqueous hydrogels of NFC where an optimum sonication power is described. The results suggest the existence of an attractive interaction between multilayered graphene flakes and cellulose. Aligned assemblies are obtained by removal of water by filtration. The concept can be beneficial for applications because it results in high mechanical properties by a simple and environmentally green process.

U2 - 10.1021/bm2018189

DO - 10.1021/bm2018189

M3 - Article

VL - 13

SP - 1093

EP - 1099

JO - Biomacromolecules

JF - Biomacromolecules

SN - 1525-7797

IS - 4

ER -