Rye bran of two different particle sizes (coarse: 440 µm and fine: 28 µm) were prepared by milling of commercial rye bran. Coarse and fine rye bran was added into a blend of rye endosperm flour and corn starch (70:30) to achieve two bran levels, 15 or 30%, to produce directly puffed extrudates. A co-rotating twin screw extruder was used with a screw speed of 500 rpm, barrel temperature profile: 40-70-75-90-95-110-110 °C and constant feed rate of 67 g/min. Feed moisture content of 17% was used either as in barrel-water feed or as preconditioning. Fine bran addition effectively improved macrostructural properties as compared to coarse bran through increasing expansion by 3.3-11.7% and piece density by 3.8-10.5%. Reduction of bran particle size significantly (P <0.05) increased crispiness by 66.7-203.3%. Particle size reduction of bran had only minor influences on cell wall thickness, cell area and hydrolysis index of the extrudates. Extrudates made with 30% fine bran at in barrel-water feed provided the crispiest extrudates with lower in vitro hydrolysis index. The results demonstrated that the macrostructural and mechanical properties of extrudates containing rye bran can be improved by reducing bran particle size.
- dietary fibre
- particle size reduction
- starch digestibility
Alam, S. A., Järvinen, J., Kokkonen, H., Jurvelin, J., Poutanen, K., & Sozer, N. (2016). Factors affecting structural properties and in vitro starch digestibility of extruded starchy foams containing bran. Journal of Cereal Science, 71, 190-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2016.08.018