Fast pyrolysis of forestry residue: 2. Physicochemical composition of product liquid

A. Oasmaa, E. Kuoppala, Y. Solantausta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

281 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this second article on fuel oil, use of forestry residue pyrolysis liquids, their physicochemical properties, and the behavior of these liquids are described. Understanding of the chemical composition of forestry residue liquids enables the selection of correct handling and storage conditions. Forestry residue is one of the most viable biomass feedstocks for liquid production in Northern softwood forest zone. A 10-25 wt% top phase with a high heating value is produced from forestry residue due to the high content of extractives and low water content. However, it has high solid and ash contents. The main product, bottom phase, is similar to bark-free wood pyrolysis liquid: volatile acids 8-10 wt%; aldehydes and ketones 10-15 wt%; water 25-30 wt%; "sugar constituents" 30-35 wt%; water-insoluble, mainly lignin-based constituents 15-20 wt%; and extractives (2-6 wt%). Its physical properties (water 28 wt%, pH 3.0, viscosity at 40°C 15 cSt, LHV 14 MJ/kg, solids < 0.05 wt%), making it suitable for fuel oil use. The solids content is typically lower than in pine liquids. Needles and bark in forestry residue, especially in fresh green feedstock, yields high alkali metal (400-1000 mg/kg), ash (0.1-0.2 wt%), and nitrogen (0.1-0.4 wt%) contents of the liquid compared to pine (50 mg/kg, 0.02-0.03 wt%, < 0.1 wt%, respectively) liquids. This results in higher NOx and particulates emissions in combustion. In pyrolysis of forestry residue attention should be paid on solids/alkali removal and decrease in nitrogen content.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)433-443
Number of pages11
JournalEnergy & Fuels
Volume17
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2003
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Forestry
Pyrolysis
Liquids
Ashes
Chemical analysis
Fuel Oils
Fuel oils
Feedstocks
Water
Nitrogen
Alkali Metals
Particulate emissions
Softwoods
Lignin
Alkalies
Alkali metals
Ketones
Aldehydes
Sugars
Needles

Keywords

  • fast pyrolysis
  • pyrolysis
  • biofuels
  • forest residues
  • wood residues
  • liquid biofuels
  • pyrolysis liquid

Cite this

Oasmaa, A. ; Kuoppala, E. ; Solantausta, Y. / Fast pyrolysis of forestry residue : 2. Physicochemical composition of product liquid. In: Energy & Fuels. 2003 ; Vol. 17, No. 2. pp. 433-443.
@article{c05ac79bebc64202bde182933f46bedd,
title = "Fast pyrolysis of forestry residue: 2. Physicochemical composition of product liquid",
abstract = "In this second article on fuel oil, use of forestry residue pyrolysis liquids, their physicochemical properties, and the behavior of these liquids are described. Understanding of the chemical composition of forestry residue liquids enables the selection of correct handling and storage conditions. Forestry residue is one of the most viable biomass feedstocks for liquid production in Northern softwood forest zone. A 10-25 wt{\%} top phase with a high heating value is produced from forestry residue due to the high content of extractives and low water content. However, it has high solid and ash contents. The main product, bottom phase, is similar to bark-free wood pyrolysis liquid: volatile acids 8-10 wt{\%}; aldehydes and ketones 10-15 wt{\%}; water 25-30 wt{\%}; {"}sugar constituents{"} 30-35 wt{\%}; water-insoluble, mainly lignin-based constituents 15-20 wt{\%}; and extractives (2-6 wt{\%}). Its physical properties (water 28 wt{\%}, pH 3.0, viscosity at 40°C 15 cSt, LHV 14 MJ/kg, solids < 0.05 wt{\%}), making it suitable for fuel oil use. The solids content is typically lower than in pine liquids. Needles and bark in forestry residue, especially in fresh green feedstock, yields high alkali metal (400-1000 mg/kg), ash (0.1-0.2 wt{\%}), and nitrogen (0.1-0.4 wt{\%}) contents of the liquid compared to pine (50 mg/kg, 0.02-0.03 wt{\%}, < 0.1 wt{\%}, respectively) liquids. This results in higher NOx and particulates emissions in combustion. In pyrolysis of forestry residue attention should be paid on solids/alkali removal and decrease in nitrogen content.",
keywords = "fast pyrolysis, pyrolysis, biofuels, forest residues, wood residues, liquid biofuels, pyrolysis liquid",
author = "A. Oasmaa and E. Kuoppala and Y. Solantausta",
year = "2003",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1021/ef020206g",
language = "English",
volume = "17",
pages = "433--443",
journal = "Energy & Fuels",
issn = "0887-0624",
publisher = "American Chemical Society ACS",
number = "2",

}

Fast pyrolysis of forestry residue : 2. Physicochemical composition of product liquid. / Oasmaa, A.; Kuoppala, E.; Solantausta, Y.

In: Energy & Fuels, Vol. 17, No. 2, 01.03.2003, p. 433-443.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fast pyrolysis of forestry residue

T2 - 2. Physicochemical composition of product liquid

AU - Oasmaa, A.

AU - Kuoppala, E.

AU - Solantausta, Y.

PY - 2003/3/1

Y1 - 2003/3/1

N2 - In this second article on fuel oil, use of forestry residue pyrolysis liquids, their physicochemical properties, and the behavior of these liquids are described. Understanding of the chemical composition of forestry residue liquids enables the selection of correct handling and storage conditions. Forestry residue is one of the most viable biomass feedstocks for liquid production in Northern softwood forest zone. A 10-25 wt% top phase with a high heating value is produced from forestry residue due to the high content of extractives and low water content. However, it has high solid and ash contents. The main product, bottom phase, is similar to bark-free wood pyrolysis liquid: volatile acids 8-10 wt%; aldehydes and ketones 10-15 wt%; water 25-30 wt%; "sugar constituents" 30-35 wt%; water-insoluble, mainly lignin-based constituents 15-20 wt%; and extractives (2-6 wt%). Its physical properties (water 28 wt%, pH 3.0, viscosity at 40°C 15 cSt, LHV 14 MJ/kg, solids < 0.05 wt%), making it suitable for fuel oil use. The solids content is typically lower than in pine liquids. Needles and bark in forestry residue, especially in fresh green feedstock, yields high alkali metal (400-1000 mg/kg), ash (0.1-0.2 wt%), and nitrogen (0.1-0.4 wt%) contents of the liquid compared to pine (50 mg/kg, 0.02-0.03 wt%, < 0.1 wt%, respectively) liquids. This results in higher NOx and particulates emissions in combustion. In pyrolysis of forestry residue attention should be paid on solids/alkali removal and decrease in nitrogen content.

AB - In this second article on fuel oil, use of forestry residue pyrolysis liquids, their physicochemical properties, and the behavior of these liquids are described. Understanding of the chemical composition of forestry residue liquids enables the selection of correct handling and storage conditions. Forestry residue is one of the most viable biomass feedstocks for liquid production in Northern softwood forest zone. A 10-25 wt% top phase with a high heating value is produced from forestry residue due to the high content of extractives and low water content. However, it has high solid and ash contents. The main product, bottom phase, is similar to bark-free wood pyrolysis liquid: volatile acids 8-10 wt%; aldehydes and ketones 10-15 wt%; water 25-30 wt%; "sugar constituents" 30-35 wt%; water-insoluble, mainly lignin-based constituents 15-20 wt%; and extractives (2-6 wt%). Its physical properties (water 28 wt%, pH 3.0, viscosity at 40°C 15 cSt, LHV 14 MJ/kg, solids < 0.05 wt%), making it suitable for fuel oil use. The solids content is typically lower than in pine liquids. Needles and bark in forestry residue, especially in fresh green feedstock, yields high alkali metal (400-1000 mg/kg), ash (0.1-0.2 wt%), and nitrogen (0.1-0.4 wt%) contents of the liquid compared to pine (50 mg/kg, 0.02-0.03 wt%, < 0.1 wt%, respectively) liquids. This results in higher NOx and particulates emissions in combustion. In pyrolysis of forestry residue attention should be paid on solids/alkali removal and decrease in nitrogen content.

KW - fast pyrolysis

KW - pyrolysis

KW - biofuels

KW - forest residues

KW - wood residues

KW - liquid biofuels

KW - pyrolysis liquid

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0037332521&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/ef020206g

DO - 10.1021/ef020206g

M3 - Article

VL - 17

SP - 433

EP - 443

JO - Energy & Fuels

JF - Energy & Fuels

SN - 0887-0624

IS - 2

ER -