Fast thermo-optical switch based on SOI waveguides

Timo Aalto, Markku Kapulainen, Sanna Yliniemi, Päivi Heimala, Matti Leppihalme

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Thermo-optical silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide switch has been fabricated and characterized. The switch is based on a 2x2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer and 9 microns thick ridge waveguides. The extinction ratio of the switch is 17 dB with ultra-slow modulation and it is limited by the unoptimized directional coupler lengths. Thermo-optical switching with conventional on/off modulation was demonstrated up to 10 kHz. The average power consumption was 150 mW and the extinction ratio was 15 dB in 10 kHz square wave modulation. By using a novel modulation principle the maximum frequency was rised up to 167 kHz, while still maintaining the 15 dB extinction ratio in square wave modulation. With random binary modulation at 167 kHz frequency (3 μs per bit) the extinction ratio remained above 13 dB and the average power consumption was 590 mW. The obtained frequency limits for square wave modulation correspond to a maximum of 1% deviation from the attainable extinction ratio limits. With less strict extinction ratio requirements the maximum frequencies can be much higher. The new modulation method can be used to radically speed up interferometric switches with a tolerable increase in the power consumption.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIntegrated Optics
Subtitle of host publicationDevices, Materials, and Technologies VII
EditorsYakov S. Sidorin, Ari Tervonen
PublisherInternational Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE
Pages149-159
ISBN (Print)0-8194-4787-0
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2003
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventPhotonics West 2003 (PW'03) - San Jose, United States
Duration: 27 Jan 200329 Jan 2003

Publication series

SeriesProceedings of SPIE
Volume4987
ISSN0277-786X

Conference

ConferencePhotonics West 2003 (PW'03)
CountryUnited States
CitySan Jose
Period27/01/0329/01/03

Fingerprint

switches
insulators
waveguides
modulation
extinction
silicon
square waves
directional couplers
Mach-Zehnder interferometers
optical switching
ridges
deviation
requirements

Keywords

  • silicon-on-insulator
  • SOI
  • waveguide
  • thermo-optical switch
  • phase modulation
  • Mach-Zehnder interferometer

Cite this

Aalto, T., Kapulainen, M., Yliniemi, S., Heimala, P., & Leppihalme, M. (2003). Fast thermo-optical switch based on SOI waveguides. In Y. S. Sidorin, & A. Tervonen (Eds.), Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VII (pp. 149-159). International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE. Proceedings of SPIE, Vol.. 4987 https://doi.org/10.1117/12.478334
Aalto, Timo ; Kapulainen, Markku ; Yliniemi, Sanna ; Heimala, Päivi ; Leppihalme, Matti. / Fast thermo-optical switch based on SOI waveguides. Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VII. editor / Yakov S. Sidorin ; Ari Tervonen. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE, 2003. pp. 149-159 (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 4987).
@inproceedings{eb2d2968d58b4b02822fcc223e5f494f,
title = "Fast thermo-optical switch based on SOI waveguides",
abstract = "Thermo-optical silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide switch has been fabricated and characterized. The switch is based on a 2x2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer and 9 microns thick ridge waveguides. The extinction ratio of the switch is 17 dB with ultra-slow modulation and it is limited by the unoptimized directional coupler lengths. Thermo-optical switching with conventional on/off modulation was demonstrated up to 10 kHz. The average power consumption was 150 mW and the extinction ratio was 15 dB in 10 kHz square wave modulation. By using a novel modulation principle the maximum frequency was rised up to 167 kHz, while still maintaining the 15 dB extinction ratio in square wave modulation. With random binary modulation at 167 kHz frequency (3 μs per bit) the extinction ratio remained above 13 dB and the average power consumption was 590 mW. The obtained frequency limits for square wave modulation correspond to a maximum of 1{\%} deviation from the attainable extinction ratio limits. With less strict extinction ratio requirements the maximum frequencies can be much higher. The new modulation method can be used to radically speed up interferometric switches with a tolerable increase in the power consumption.",
keywords = "silicon-on-insulator, SOI, waveguide, thermo-optical switch, phase modulation, Mach-Zehnder interferometer",
author = "Timo Aalto and Markku Kapulainen and Sanna Yliniemi and P{\"a}ivi Heimala and Matti Leppihalme",
note = "CA2: TTE6 CA: TTE Project code: T3SU00062",
year = "2003",
doi = "10.1117/12.478334",
language = "English",
isbn = "0-8194-4787-0",
series = "Proceedings of SPIE",
publisher = "International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE",
pages = "149--159",
editor = "Sidorin, {Yakov S.} and Ari Tervonen",
booktitle = "Integrated Optics",
address = "United States",

}

Aalto, T, Kapulainen, M, Yliniemi, S, Heimala, P & Leppihalme, M 2003, Fast thermo-optical switch based on SOI waveguides. in YS Sidorin & A Tervonen (eds), Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VII. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 4987, pp. 149-159, Photonics West 2003 (PW'03), San Jose, United States, 27/01/03. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.478334

Fast thermo-optical switch based on SOI waveguides. / Aalto, Timo; Kapulainen, Markku; Yliniemi, Sanna; Heimala, Päivi; Leppihalme, Matti.

Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VII. ed. / Yakov S. Sidorin; Ari Tervonen. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE, 2003. p. 149-159 (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 4987).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

TY - GEN

T1 - Fast thermo-optical switch based on SOI waveguides

AU - Aalto, Timo

AU - Kapulainen, Markku

AU - Yliniemi, Sanna

AU - Heimala, Päivi

AU - Leppihalme, Matti

N1 - CA2: TTE6 CA: TTE Project code: T3SU00062

PY - 2003

Y1 - 2003

N2 - Thermo-optical silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide switch has been fabricated and characterized. The switch is based on a 2x2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer and 9 microns thick ridge waveguides. The extinction ratio of the switch is 17 dB with ultra-slow modulation and it is limited by the unoptimized directional coupler lengths. Thermo-optical switching with conventional on/off modulation was demonstrated up to 10 kHz. The average power consumption was 150 mW and the extinction ratio was 15 dB in 10 kHz square wave modulation. By using a novel modulation principle the maximum frequency was rised up to 167 kHz, while still maintaining the 15 dB extinction ratio in square wave modulation. With random binary modulation at 167 kHz frequency (3 μs per bit) the extinction ratio remained above 13 dB and the average power consumption was 590 mW. The obtained frequency limits for square wave modulation correspond to a maximum of 1% deviation from the attainable extinction ratio limits. With less strict extinction ratio requirements the maximum frequencies can be much higher. The new modulation method can be used to radically speed up interferometric switches with a tolerable increase in the power consumption.

AB - Thermo-optical silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide switch has been fabricated and characterized. The switch is based on a 2x2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer and 9 microns thick ridge waveguides. The extinction ratio of the switch is 17 dB with ultra-slow modulation and it is limited by the unoptimized directional coupler lengths. Thermo-optical switching with conventional on/off modulation was demonstrated up to 10 kHz. The average power consumption was 150 mW and the extinction ratio was 15 dB in 10 kHz square wave modulation. By using a novel modulation principle the maximum frequency was rised up to 167 kHz, while still maintaining the 15 dB extinction ratio in square wave modulation. With random binary modulation at 167 kHz frequency (3 μs per bit) the extinction ratio remained above 13 dB and the average power consumption was 590 mW. The obtained frequency limits for square wave modulation correspond to a maximum of 1% deviation from the attainable extinction ratio limits. With less strict extinction ratio requirements the maximum frequencies can be much higher. The new modulation method can be used to radically speed up interferometric switches with a tolerable increase in the power consumption.

KW - silicon-on-insulator

KW - SOI

KW - waveguide

KW - thermo-optical switch

KW - phase modulation

KW - Mach-Zehnder interferometer

U2 - 10.1117/12.478334

DO - 10.1117/12.478334

M3 - Conference article in proceedings

SN - 0-8194-4787-0

T3 - Proceedings of SPIE

SP - 149

EP - 159

BT - Integrated Optics

A2 - Sidorin, Yakov S.

A2 - Tervonen, Ari

PB - International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE

ER -

Aalto T, Kapulainen M, Yliniemi S, Heimala P, Leppihalme M. Fast thermo-optical switch based on SOI waveguides. In Sidorin YS, Tervonen A, editors, Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VII. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE. 2003. p. 149-159. (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 4987). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.478334