Fast thermo-optical switch based on SOI waveguides

Timo Aalto, Markku Kapulainen, Sanna Yliniemi, Päivi Heimala, Matti Leppihalme

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

    17 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Thermo-optical silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide switch has been fabricated and characterized. The switch is based on a 2x2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer and 9 microns thick ridge waveguides. The extinction ratio of the switch is 17 dB with ultra-slow modulation and it is limited by the unoptimized directional coupler lengths. Thermo-optical switching with conventional on/off modulation was demonstrated up to 10 kHz. The average power consumption was 150 mW and the extinction ratio was 15 dB in 10 kHz square wave modulation. By using a novel modulation principle the maximum frequency was rised up to 167 kHz, while still maintaining the 15 dB extinction ratio in square wave modulation. With random binary modulation at 167 kHz frequency (3 μs per bit) the extinction ratio remained above 13 dB and the average power consumption was 590 mW. The obtained frequency limits for square wave modulation correspond to a maximum of 1% deviation from the attainable extinction ratio limits. With less strict extinction ratio requirements the maximum frequencies can be much higher. The new modulation method can be used to radically speed up interferometric switches with a tolerable increase in the power consumption.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationIntegrated Optics
    Subtitle of host publicationDevices, Materials, and Technologies VII
    EditorsYakov S. Sidorin, Ari Tervonen
    PublisherInternational Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE
    Pages149-159
    ISBN (Print)0-8194-4787-0
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2003
    MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
    EventPhotonics West 2003 (PW'03) - San Jose, United States
    Duration: 27 Jan 200329 Jan 2003

    Publication series

    SeriesProceedings of SPIE
    Volume4987
    ISSN0277-786X

    Conference

    ConferencePhotonics West 2003 (PW'03)
    CountryUnited States
    CitySan Jose
    Period27/01/0329/01/03

    Fingerprint

    switches
    insulators
    waveguides
    modulation
    extinction
    silicon
    square waves
    directional couplers
    Mach-Zehnder interferometers
    optical switching
    ridges
    deviation
    requirements

    Keywords

    • silicon-on-insulator
    • SOI
    • waveguide
    • thermo-optical switch
    • phase modulation
    • Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Cite this

    Aalto, T., Kapulainen, M., Yliniemi, S., Heimala, P., & Leppihalme, M. (2003). Fast thermo-optical switch based on SOI waveguides. In Y. S. Sidorin, & A. Tervonen (Eds.), Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VII (pp. 149-159). International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE. Proceedings of SPIE, Vol.. 4987 https://doi.org/10.1117/12.478334
    Aalto, Timo ; Kapulainen, Markku ; Yliniemi, Sanna ; Heimala, Päivi ; Leppihalme, Matti. / Fast thermo-optical switch based on SOI waveguides. Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VII. editor / Yakov S. Sidorin ; Ari Tervonen. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE, 2003. pp. 149-159 (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 4987).
    @inproceedings{eb2d2968d58b4b02822fcc223e5f494f,
    title = "Fast thermo-optical switch based on SOI waveguides",
    abstract = "Thermo-optical silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide switch has been fabricated and characterized. The switch is based on a 2x2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer and 9 microns thick ridge waveguides. The extinction ratio of the switch is 17 dB with ultra-slow modulation and it is limited by the unoptimized directional coupler lengths. Thermo-optical switching with conventional on/off modulation was demonstrated up to 10 kHz. The average power consumption was 150 mW and the extinction ratio was 15 dB in 10 kHz square wave modulation. By using a novel modulation principle the maximum frequency was rised up to 167 kHz, while still maintaining the 15 dB extinction ratio in square wave modulation. With random binary modulation at 167 kHz frequency (3 μs per bit) the extinction ratio remained above 13 dB and the average power consumption was 590 mW. The obtained frequency limits for square wave modulation correspond to a maximum of 1{\%} deviation from the attainable extinction ratio limits. With less strict extinction ratio requirements the maximum frequencies can be much higher. The new modulation method can be used to radically speed up interferometric switches with a tolerable increase in the power consumption.",
    keywords = "silicon-on-insulator, SOI, waveguide, thermo-optical switch, phase modulation, Mach-Zehnder interferometer",
    author = "Timo Aalto and Markku Kapulainen and Sanna Yliniemi and P{\"a}ivi Heimala and Matti Leppihalme",
    note = "CA2: TTE6 CA: TTE Project code: T3SU00062",
    year = "2003",
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    Aalto, T, Kapulainen, M, Yliniemi, S, Heimala, P & Leppihalme, M 2003, Fast thermo-optical switch based on SOI waveguides. in YS Sidorin & A Tervonen (eds), Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VII. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 4987, pp. 149-159, Photonics West 2003 (PW'03), San Jose, United States, 27/01/03. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.478334

    Fast thermo-optical switch based on SOI waveguides. / Aalto, Timo; Kapulainen, Markku; Yliniemi, Sanna; Heimala, Päivi; Leppihalme, Matti.

    Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VII. ed. / Yakov S. Sidorin; Ari Tervonen. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE, 2003. p. 149-159 (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 4987).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

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    AU - Kapulainen, Markku

    AU - Yliniemi, Sanna

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    AU - Leppihalme, Matti

    N1 - CA2: TTE6 CA: TTE Project code: T3SU00062

    PY - 2003

    Y1 - 2003

    N2 - Thermo-optical silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide switch has been fabricated and characterized. The switch is based on a 2x2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer and 9 microns thick ridge waveguides. The extinction ratio of the switch is 17 dB with ultra-slow modulation and it is limited by the unoptimized directional coupler lengths. Thermo-optical switching with conventional on/off modulation was demonstrated up to 10 kHz. The average power consumption was 150 mW and the extinction ratio was 15 dB in 10 kHz square wave modulation. By using a novel modulation principle the maximum frequency was rised up to 167 kHz, while still maintaining the 15 dB extinction ratio in square wave modulation. With random binary modulation at 167 kHz frequency (3 μs per bit) the extinction ratio remained above 13 dB and the average power consumption was 590 mW. The obtained frequency limits for square wave modulation correspond to a maximum of 1% deviation from the attainable extinction ratio limits. With less strict extinction ratio requirements the maximum frequencies can be much higher. The new modulation method can be used to radically speed up interferometric switches with a tolerable increase in the power consumption.

    AB - Thermo-optical silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide switch has been fabricated and characterized. The switch is based on a 2x2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer and 9 microns thick ridge waveguides. The extinction ratio of the switch is 17 dB with ultra-slow modulation and it is limited by the unoptimized directional coupler lengths. Thermo-optical switching with conventional on/off modulation was demonstrated up to 10 kHz. The average power consumption was 150 mW and the extinction ratio was 15 dB in 10 kHz square wave modulation. By using a novel modulation principle the maximum frequency was rised up to 167 kHz, while still maintaining the 15 dB extinction ratio in square wave modulation. With random binary modulation at 167 kHz frequency (3 μs per bit) the extinction ratio remained above 13 dB and the average power consumption was 590 mW. The obtained frequency limits for square wave modulation correspond to a maximum of 1% deviation from the attainable extinction ratio limits. With less strict extinction ratio requirements the maximum frequencies can be much higher. The new modulation method can be used to radically speed up interferometric switches with a tolerable increase in the power consumption.

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    KW - phase modulation

    KW - Mach-Zehnder interferometer

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    M3 - Conference article in proceedings

    SN - 0-8194-4787-0

    T3 - Proceedings of SPIE

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    EP - 159

    BT - Integrated Optics

    A2 - Sidorin, Yakov S.

    A2 - Tervonen, Ari

    PB - International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE

    ER -

    Aalto T, Kapulainen M, Yliniemi S, Heimala P, Leppihalme M. Fast thermo-optical switch based on SOI waveguides. In Sidorin YS, Tervonen A, editors, Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VII. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE. 2003. p. 149-159. (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 4987). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.478334