Fate of bromine and chlorine in bubbling fluidized bed combustion: Formation of alkali halide aerosols

H Wu (Corresponding Author), T Lauren, P Yrjas, Pasi Vainikka, M Hupa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In solid substances used as fuels, bromine originates mainly from flame retarded plastics and textiles, as well as from wastewater sludge. It has been indicated that bromine behaves in a similar way as chlorine with respect to ash forming matter, aerosol formation and high temperature corrosion in biomass and waste fired boilers. In this work, a measurement campaign was carried out in a 20 kWth bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) bench scale reactor to characterize the fate of Cl and Br in BFB combustion conditions. Spruce bark was used as the base fuel - serving as a source of alkali metals (mainly K, little Na). The gases HCl and HBr were fed with the fluidization air at different proportions into the BFB unit. In total, six experiments were done. The fate of bromine and chlorine was evaluated by means of several measurements including: FTIR (flue gas measurement), a low-pressure impactor (size distribution and chemical composition of aerosol particles) and deposit probe sampling (deposit growth rate and chemical composition of the windward, 90° side and leeward deposits). It was shown that the addition of HBr or HCl greatly increased the release of alkali metals (K, Na) from the original fuel (spruce bark) during combustion. The promoting effect of HBr was more obvious than that of HCl. HBr was found more reactive towards alkali metals than HCl
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)390-395
JournalFuel
Volume128
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Alkali Metals
Bromine
Alkali halides
Fluidized bed combustion
Chlorine
Alkali metals
Aerosols
Deposits
Ashes
Fluidized beds
Gas fuel measurement
Fluidization
Chemical analysis
Flue gases
Particles (particulate matter)
Boilers
Textiles
Biomass
Wastewater
Gases

Keywords

  • Aerosols
  • alkali halide
  • bromine
  • bubbling fluidized bed combustion
  • chlorine

Cite this

Wu, H ; Lauren, T ; Yrjas, P ; Vainikka, Pasi ; Hupa, M. / Fate of bromine and chlorine in bubbling fluidized bed combustion : Formation of alkali halide aerosols. In: Fuel. 2014 ; Vol. 128. pp. 390-395.
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abstract = "In solid substances used as fuels, bromine originates mainly from flame retarded plastics and textiles, as well as from wastewater sludge. It has been indicated that bromine behaves in a similar way as chlorine with respect to ash forming matter, aerosol formation and high temperature corrosion in biomass and waste fired boilers. In this work, a measurement campaign was carried out in a 20 kWth bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) bench scale reactor to characterize the fate of Cl and Br in BFB combustion conditions. Spruce bark was used as the base fuel - serving as a source of alkali metals (mainly K, little Na). The gases HCl and HBr were fed with the fluidization air at different proportions into the BFB unit. In total, six experiments were done. The fate of bromine and chlorine was evaluated by means of several measurements including: FTIR (flue gas measurement), a low-pressure impactor (size distribution and chemical composition of aerosol particles) and deposit probe sampling (deposit growth rate and chemical composition of the windward, 90° side and leeward deposits). It was shown that the addition of HBr or HCl greatly increased the release of alkali metals (K, Na) from the original fuel (spruce bark) during combustion. The promoting effect of HBr was more obvious than that of HCl. HBr was found more reactive towards alkali metals than HCl",
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author = "H Wu and T Lauren and P Yrjas and Pasi Vainikka and M Hupa",
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Fate of bromine and chlorine in bubbling fluidized bed combustion : Formation of alkali halide aerosols. / Wu, H (Corresponding Author); Lauren, T; Yrjas, P; Vainikka, Pasi; Hupa, M.

In: Fuel, Vol. 128, 2014, p. 390-395.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fate of bromine and chlorine in bubbling fluidized bed combustion

T2 - Formation of alkali halide aerosols

AU - Wu, H

AU - Lauren, T

AU - Yrjas, P

AU - Vainikka, Pasi

AU - Hupa, M

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - In solid substances used as fuels, bromine originates mainly from flame retarded plastics and textiles, as well as from wastewater sludge. It has been indicated that bromine behaves in a similar way as chlorine with respect to ash forming matter, aerosol formation and high temperature corrosion in biomass and waste fired boilers. In this work, a measurement campaign was carried out in a 20 kWth bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) bench scale reactor to characterize the fate of Cl and Br in BFB combustion conditions. Spruce bark was used as the base fuel - serving as a source of alkali metals (mainly K, little Na). The gases HCl and HBr were fed with the fluidization air at different proportions into the BFB unit. In total, six experiments were done. The fate of bromine and chlorine was evaluated by means of several measurements including: FTIR (flue gas measurement), a low-pressure impactor (size distribution and chemical composition of aerosol particles) and deposit probe sampling (deposit growth rate and chemical composition of the windward, 90° side and leeward deposits). It was shown that the addition of HBr or HCl greatly increased the release of alkali metals (K, Na) from the original fuel (spruce bark) during combustion. The promoting effect of HBr was more obvious than that of HCl. HBr was found more reactive towards alkali metals than HCl

AB - In solid substances used as fuels, bromine originates mainly from flame retarded plastics and textiles, as well as from wastewater sludge. It has been indicated that bromine behaves in a similar way as chlorine with respect to ash forming matter, aerosol formation and high temperature corrosion in biomass and waste fired boilers. In this work, a measurement campaign was carried out in a 20 kWth bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) bench scale reactor to characterize the fate of Cl and Br in BFB combustion conditions. Spruce bark was used as the base fuel - serving as a source of alkali metals (mainly K, little Na). The gases HCl and HBr were fed with the fluidization air at different proportions into the BFB unit. In total, six experiments were done. The fate of bromine and chlorine was evaluated by means of several measurements including: FTIR (flue gas measurement), a low-pressure impactor (size distribution and chemical composition of aerosol particles) and deposit probe sampling (deposit growth rate and chemical composition of the windward, 90° side and leeward deposits). It was shown that the addition of HBr or HCl greatly increased the release of alkali metals (K, Na) from the original fuel (spruce bark) during combustion. The promoting effect of HBr was more obvious than that of HCl. HBr was found more reactive towards alkali metals than HCl

KW - Aerosols

KW - alkali halide

KW - bromine

KW - bubbling fluidized bed combustion

KW - chlorine

U2 - 10.1016/j.fuel.2014.03.026

DO - 10.1016/j.fuel.2014.03.026

M3 - Article

VL - 128

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EP - 395

JO - Fuel

JF - Fuel

SN - 0016-2361

ER -