Transgenic, fertile barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from the Finnish elite cultivar Kymppi was obtained by particle bombardment of immature embryos. Immature embryos were bombarded to the embryonic axis side and grown to plants without selection. Neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) activity was screened in small plantlets. One out of a total of 227 plants expressed the transferred nptII gene. This plant has until now produced 98 fertile spikes (T0), and four of the 90 T0 spikes analyzed to date contained the nptII gene. These shoots were further analyzed and they expressed the transferred gene. From green grains, embryos were isolated and grown to plantlets (T1). The four transgenic shoots of Toivo (the T0 plant) produced 25 plantlets as T1 progeny. Altogether fifteen of these T1 plants carried the transferred nptII gene as detected with the PCR technique, fourteen of which expressed the nptII gene. The integration and inheritance of the transferred nptII gene was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization. Although present as several copies, the transferred gene was inherited as a single Mendelian locus into the T2 progeny.
Ritala, A., Aspegren, K., Kurten, U., Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., Mannonen, L., Hannus, R., Kauppinen, V., Teeri, T., & Enari, T-M. (1994). Fertile transgenic barley by particle bombardment of immature embryos. Plant Molecular Biology, 24(2), 317-325. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00020170