Fiber optic attenuator

Arto Karppinen, Harri Kopola, Risto Myllylä

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Several possibilities based on the principles of scattering and polarization of light in liquid crystals (LCs) and PLZT ceramics were studied for the replacement of mechanical shutters and attenuators in optical instruments.
A scatter-mode LC was selected as the active material, and two modules were developed for fiber optic attenuator applications. In the first, the light transmitted through an optical fiber (input fiber, Φ100/140 μm) is collimated to a beam using a graded-index microlens (0.25 P, Φ1.8 mm).
This beam penetrates two LC films (7 × 12 mm2) and is received by a microlens at the output fiber. The second, for large-diameter fibers (Φ400 μm), employs conventional aspherical lenses to optimize the fiber-to-fiber coupling instead of microlenses. Components were built for both Φ100- and Φ400-μm fibers. The maximum transmission is up to 70% and maximum contrasts 10,000:1 (632.8 nm), 2000:1 (830 nm), and 700:1 (905 nm).
The rise time is typically less than 1 ms and the decay time less than 5 ms, given a temperature above + 20°C. The contrast remains high from 0 to + 50°C. Both components function with ±100VAC.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)104-110
JournalJournal of Electronic Imaging
Volume1
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1992
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

attenuators
Fiber optics
fiber optics
fibers
Fibers
Liquid crystals
liquid crystals
Microlenses
Optical instruments
shutters
Optical fibers
Lenses
modules
optical fibers
lenses
Scattering
ceramics
Polarization
output
decay

Cite this

Karppinen, A., Kopola, H., & Myllylä, R. (1992). Fiber optic attenuator. Journal of Electronic Imaging, 1(1), 104-110. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.55181
Karppinen, Arto ; Kopola, Harri ; Myllylä, Risto. / Fiber optic attenuator. In: Journal of Electronic Imaging. 1992 ; Vol. 1, No. 1. pp. 104-110.
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title = "Fiber optic attenuator",
abstract = "Several possibilities based on the principles of scattering and polarization of light in liquid crystals (LCs) and PLZT ceramics were studied for the replacement of mechanical shutters and attenuators in optical instruments. A scatter-mode LC was selected as the active material, and two modules were developed for fiber optic attenuator applications. In the first, the light transmitted through an optical fiber (input fiber, Φ100/140 μm) is collimated to a beam using a graded-index microlens (0.25 P, Φ1.8 mm). This beam penetrates two LC films (7 × 12 mm2) and is received by a microlens at the output fiber. The second, for large-diameter fibers (Φ400 μm), employs conventional aspherical lenses to optimize the fiber-to-fiber coupling instead of microlenses. Components were built for both Φ100- and Φ400-μm fibers. The maximum transmission is up to 70{\%} and maximum contrasts 10,000:1 (632.8 nm), 2000:1 (830 nm), and 700:1 (905 nm). The rise time is typically less than 1 ms and the decay time less than 5 ms, given a temperature above + 20°C. The contrast remains high from 0 to + 50°C. Both components function with ±100VAC.",
author = "Arto Karppinen and Harri Kopola and Risto Myllyl{\"a}",
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Karppinen, A, Kopola, H & Myllylä, R 1992, 'Fiber optic attenuator', Journal of Electronic Imaging, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 104-110. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.55181

Fiber optic attenuator. / Karppinen, Arto; Kopola, Harri; Myllylä, Risto.

In: Journal of Electronic Imaging, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1992, p. 104-110.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fiber optic attenuator

AU - Karppinen, Arto

AU - Kopola, Harri

AU - Myllylä, Risto

PY - 1992

Y1 - 1992

N2 - Several possibilities based on the principles of scattering and polarization of light in liquid crystals (LCs) and PLZT ceramics were studied for the replacement of mechanical shutters and attenuators in optical instruments. A scatter-mode LC was selected as the active material, and two modules were developed for fiber optic attenuator applications. In the first, the light transmitted through an optical fiber (input fiber, Φ100/140 μm) is collimated to a beam using a graded-index microlens (0.25 P, Φ1.8 mm). This beam penetrates two LC films (7 × 12 mm2) and is received by a microlens at the output fiber. The second, for large-diameter fibers (Φ400 μm), employs conventional aspherical lenses to optimize the fiber-to-fiber coupling instead of microlenses. Components were built for both Φ100- and Φ400-μm fibers. The maximum transmission is up to 70% and maximum contrasts 10,000:1 (632.8 nm), 2000:1 (830 nm), and 700:1 (905 nm). The rise time is typically less than 1 ms and the decay time less than 5 ms, given a temperature above + 20°C. The contrast remains high from 0 to + 50°C. Both components function with ±100VAC.

AB - Several possibilities based on the principles of scattering and polarization of light in liquid crystals (LCs) and PLZT ceramics were studied for the replacement of mechanical shutters and attenuators in optical instruments. A scatter-mode LC was selected as the active material, and two modules were developed for fiber optic attenuator applications. In the first, the light transmitted through an optical fiber (input fiber, Φ100/140 μm) is collimated to a beam using a graded-index microlens (0.25 P, Φ1.8 mm). This beam penetrates two LC films (7 × 12 mm2) and is received by a microlens at the output fiber. The second, for large-diameter fibers (Φ400 μm), employs conventional aspherical lenses to optimize the fiber-to-fiber coupling instead of microlenses. Components were built for both Φ100- and Φ400-μm fibers. The maximum transmission is up to 70% and maximum contrasts 10,000:1 (632.8 nm), 2000:1 (830 nm), and 700:1 (905 nm). The rise time is typically less than 1 ms and the decay time less than 5 ms, given a temperature above + 20°C. The contrast remains high from 0 to + 50°C. Both components function with ±100VAC.

U2 - 10.1117/12.55181

DO - 10.1117/12.55181

M3 - Article

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Karppinen A, Kopola H, Myllylä R. Fiber optic attenuator. Journal of Electronic Imaging. 1992;1(1):104-110. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.55181