Fibre-fibre bonding and ways to characterize the bond strength

E Retulainen, Kari Ebeling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Fibre bonds greatly influence the mechanical, optical, electrical and thermal properties of paper. Specific bond strength (SBS) is a parameter to characterize the quality of bonds. There has been no generally accepted method to measure the SBS from paper. In this study eight different methods have been compared. The effect of several variables on SBS has been studied: effect of beating, fibre coarseness and the amount of sheet shrinkage in drying. There was considerable disagreement between studied methods. The sheet structure and bond structure affect in a different way these measurements. The main causes for the different results were 1) the measurement of bonded area 2) the principle of strength measurement (force or energy based) and 3) the mode of loading. The fibre bond is a three dimensional anisotropic structure. Its strength cannot be measured unambiguously. Its strength can be measured only in relation to a definite loading mode.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)282-288
JournalAppita Journal
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1993
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • fibre bonds
  • measurement
  • strength


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