Field enhancement in polymer waveguides fabricated by UV imprinting

Pentti Karioja, Marianne Hiltunen, Jussi Hiltunen, Meng Wang, Risto Myllylä, Stuart Pearce, Martin Charlton

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Polymers are applicable materials for photonic device fabrication due to their good optical properties and versatile processability at low temperatures, and therefore, provide possibility for low-cost fabrication. For waveguide device fabrication, the most critical requirement is the selection of the patterning method for the ridge that is bounding the optical mode in the waveguide. In this paper, we review our UV-imprinting achievements for fabricating polymer-based single-mode waveguides: ridge, inverted ridge and layered composite waveguides. In addition, we show simulation results for polymer-based slot waveguides. The ridge waveguide consists of a strip waveguide core superimposed onto a slab waveguide made of the core material. When patterning a ridge by imprinting technique, a residual layer is formed underneath the imprinted ridges. The residual layer might cause propagation loss due to power leakage into the slab guide, and therefore, a subsequent etching step is required. In the inverted ridge waveguide configuration, a groove of cladding material is patterned by imprinting, and followed by the filling of the groove with the core material. From the imprint fabrication point of view, the fabrication tolerances can be relaxed due to the fact that the residual slab layer underneath the waveguide can have arbitrary thickness. Besides fabrication of above mentioned waveguide structures, we review the possibility to fabricate composite waveguide devices by depositing inorganic thin films with high-refractive index on UV-imprinted polymeric structures with low-refractive index. The aim to use composite structures is to manipulate the optical field distribution in the waveguides and to enhance the interaction of the optical field with the surface, which is desirable especially in waveguide sensor applications. The polymer-based slot waveguide, which is analyzed theoretically, is an ultimate approach for optical field enhancement.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2011 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC 2011)
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IEEE
Pages249-254
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-4577-1664-5, 978-1-4577-1663-8
ISBN (Print)978-1-4577-1662-1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011
MoE publication typeNot Eligible
EventInternational microwave and optoelectronics conference, IMOC2011 - Natal, Brazil
Duration: 29 Oct 20111 Nov 2011

Conference

ConferenceInternational microwave and optoelectronics conference, IMOC2011
Abbreviated titleIMOC2011
CountryBrazil
CityNatal
Period29/10/111/11/11

Fingerprint

waveguides
augmentation
polymers
ridges
fabrication
slabs
slots
grooves
refractivity
composite materials
composite structures
strip
leakage
etching
photonics
optical properties
requirements
propagation
causes
sensors

Keywords

  • ridge waveguide
  • slot waveguide
  • modeling
  • fabrication
  • sensor

Cite this

Karioja, P., Hiltunen, M., Hiltunen, J., Wang, M., Myllylä, R., Pearce, S., & Charlton, M. (2011). Field enhancement in polymer waveguides fabricated by UV imprinting. In 2011 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC 2011) (pp. 249-254). Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/IMOC.2011.6169321
Karioja, Pentti ; Hiltunen, Marianne ; Hiltunen, Jussi ; Wang, Meng ; Myllylä, Risto ; Pearce, Stuart ; Charlton, Martin. / Field enhancement in polymer waveguides fabricated by UV imprinting. 2011 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC 2011). Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IEEE, 2011. pp. 249-254
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title = "Field enhancement in polymer waveguides fabricated by UV imprinting",
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author = "Pentti Karioja and Marianne Hiltunen and Jussi Hiltunen and Meng Wang and Risto Myllyl{\"a} and Stuart Pearce and Martin Charlton",
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Karioja, P, Hiltunen, M, Hiltunen, J, Wang, M, Myllylä, R, Pearce, S & Charlton, M 2011, Field enhancement in polymer waveguides fabricated by UV imprinting. in 2011 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC 2011). Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IEEE, pp. 249-254, International microwave and optoelectronics conference, IMOC2011, Natal, Brazil, 29/10/11. https://doi.org/10.1109/IMOC.2011.6169321

Field enhancement in polymer waveguides fabricated by UV imprinting. / Karioja, Pentti; Hiltunen, Marianne; Hiltunen, Jussi; Wang, Meng; Myllylä, Risto; Pearce, Stuart; Charlton, Martin.

2011 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC 2011). Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IEEE, 2011. p. 249-254.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

TY - GEN

T1 - Field enhancement in polymer waveguides fabricated by UV imprinting

AU - Karioja, Pentti

AU - Hiltunen, Marianne

AU - Hiltunen, Jussi

AU - Wang, Meng

AU - Myllylä, Risto

AU - Pearce, Stuart

AU - Charlton, Martin

N1 - Project code: 72700

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N2 - Polymers are applicable materials for photonic device fabrication due to their good optical properties and versatile processability at low temperatures, and therefore, provide possibility for low-cost fabrication. For waveguide device fabrication, the most critical requirement is the selection of the patterning method for the ridge that is bounding the optical mode in the waveguide. In this paper, we review our UV-imprinting achievements for fabricating polymer-based single-mode waveguides: ridge, inverted ridge and layered composite waveguides. In addition, we show simulation results for polymer-based slot waveguides. The ridge waveguide consists of a strip waveguide core superimposed onto a slab waveguide made of the core material. When patterning a ridge by imprinting technique, a residual layer is formed underneath the imprinted ridges. The residual layer might cause propagation loss due to power leakage into the slab guide, and therefore, a subsequent etching step is required. In the inverted ridge waveguide configuration, a groove of cladding material is patterned by imprinting, and followed by the filling of the groove with the core material. From the imprint fabrication point of view, the fabrication tolerances can be relaxed due to the fact that the residual slab layer underneath the waveguide can have arbitrary thickness. Besides fabrication of above mentioned waveguide structures, we review the possibility to fabricate composite waveguide devices by depositing inorganic thin films with high-refractive index on UV-imprinted polymeric structures with low-refractive index. The aim to use composite structures is to manipulate the optical field distribution in the waveguides and to enhance the interaction of the optical field with the surface, which is desirable especially in waveguide sensor applications. The polymer-based slot waveguide, which is analyzed theoretically, is an ultimate approach for optical field enhancement.

AB - Polymers are applicable materials for photonic device fabrication due to their good optical properties and versatile processability at low temperatures, and therefore, provide possibility for low-cost fabrication. For waveguide device fabrication, the most critical requirement is the selection of the patterning method for the ridge that is bounding the optical mode in the waveguide. In this paper, we review our UV-imprinting achievements for fabricating polymer-based single-mode waveguides: ridge, inverted ridge and layered composite waveguides. In addition, we show simulation results for polymer-based slot waveguides. The ridge waveguide consists of a strip waveguide core superimposed onto a slab waveguide made of the core material. When patterning a ridge by imprinting technique, a residual layer is formed underneath the imprinted ridges. The residual layer might cause propagation loss due to power leakage into the slab guide, and therefore, a subsequent etching step is required. In the inverted ridge waveguide configuration, a groove of cladding material is patterned by imprinting, and followed by the filling of the groove with the core material. From the imprint fabrication point of view, the fabrication tolerances can be relaxed due to the fact that the residual slab layer underneath the waveguide can have arbitrary thickness. Besides fabrication of above mentioned waveguide structures, we review the possibility to fabricate composite waveguide devices by depositing inorganic thin films with high-refractive index on UV-imprinted polymeric structures with low-refractive index. The aim to use composite structures is to manipulate the optical field distribution in the waveguides and to enhance the interaction of the optical field with the surface, which is desirable especially in waveguide sensor applications. The polymer-based slot waveguide, which is analyzed theoretically, is an ultimate approach for optical field enhancement.

KW - ridge waveguide

KW - slot waveguide

KW - modeling

KW - fabrication

KW - sensor

U2 - 10.1109/IMOC.2011.6169321

DO - 10.1109/IMOC.2011.6169321

M3 - Conference article in proceedings

SN - 978-1-4577-1662-1

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EP - 254

BT - 2011 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC 2011)

PB - Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IEEE

ER -

Karioja P, Hiltunen M, Hiltunen J, Wang M, Myllylä R, Pearce S et al. Field enhancement in polymer waveguides fabricated by UV imprinting. In 2011 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC 2011). Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IEEE. 2011. p. 249-254 https://doi.org/10.1109/IMOC.2011.6169321