Fine particle and gaseous emissions from normal and smouldering wood combustion in a conventional masonry heater

J. Tissari, Jussi Lyyränen, K. Hytönen, O. Sippula, Unto Tapper, A. Frey, K. Saarnio, A. S. Pennanen, R. Hillamo, R. O. Salonen, M.-R. Hirvonen, J. Jokiniemi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

The fine particle and gas emissions from the residential wood combustion (RWC) appear to be a major contributor to winter-time pollution in Europe. In this study, we characterised the effect of two different combustion conditions on particulate and gaseous emissions from a conventional masonry heater. Normal combustion (NC) is the best available operational practice for the heater, whereas smouldering combustion (SC) mimicked slow heating combustion. It was found that the operational practice in RWC can significantly influence the quantity and quality of particle and gaseous emissions into the atmosphere. In SC, the emissions of carbon monoxide were 3.5-fold, total volatile organics 14-fold and PM1 6-fold to those of NC, whereas the mass of the inorganic compounds (“fine ash”) and particle number emissions were lower from SC than from NC. According to electron microscopy analyses, the observed fine ash particles seemed to occur mainly as separate spherical or irregularly shaped particles but not as agglomerates. Ultrafine (<100 nm) fine ash particles were composed mainly of K, S and Zn, but also in a lesser extent of C, Ca, Fe, Mg, Cl, P and Na. Large agglomerates were found to contain mainly carbon and are considered to be primarily soot particles. The larger spherical and irregularly shaped particles were composed of same alkali metal compounds as ultrafine particles, but they were probably covered with heavy organic compounds. From SC, particles were composed mainly of carbon compounds and they had a more closed structure than the particles from NC, due to organic matter on the particles. In the present experiments, the ultrafine mode in the particle number distributions seemed to be determined mainly by the amount of released ash forming material in combustion, and the shifting of particle size during different combustion conditions seemed to be determined by the amount of condensed organic vapour in the flue gas.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7862-7873
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Volume42
Issue number34
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

masonry
combustion
ash
fold
heater
particle
alkali metal
inorganic compound
carbon
soot
electron microscopy
carbon monoxide
organic compound

Keywords

  • Fine particles
  • Gaseous emissions
  • Single particle composition
  • Size distribution
  • Smouldering combustion
  • Wood smoke

Cite this

Tissari, J. ; Lyyränen, Jussi ; Hytönen, K. ; Sippula, O. ; Tapper, Unto ; Frey, A. ; Saarnio, K. ; Pennanen, A. S. ; Hillamo, R. ; Salonen, R. O. ; Hirvonen, M.-R. ; Jokiniemi, J. / Fine particle and gaseous emissions from normal and smouldering wood combustion in a conventional masonry heater. In: Atmospheric Environment. 2008 ; Vol. 42, No. 34. pp. 7862-7873.
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title = "Fine particle and gaseous emissions from normal and smouldering wood combustion in a conventional masonry heater",
abstract = "The fine particle and gas emissions from the residential wood combustion (RWC) appear to be a major contributor to winter-time pollution in Europe. In this study, we characterised the effect of two different combustion conditions on particulate and gaseous emissions from a conventional masonry heater. Normal combustion (NC) is the best available operational practice for the heater, whereas smouldering combustion (SC) mimicked slow heating combustion. It was found that the operational practice in RWC can significantly influence the quantity and quality of particle and gaseous emissions into the atmosphere. In SC, the emissions of carbon monoxide were 3.5-fold, total volatile organics 14-fold and PM1 6-fold to those of NC, whereas the mass of the inorganic compounds (“fine ash”) and particle number emissions were lower from SC than from NC. According to electron microscopy analyses, the observed fine ash particles seemed to occur mainly as separate spherical or irregularly shaped particles but not as agglomerates. Ultrafine (<100 nm) fine ash particles were composed mainly of K, S and Zn, but also in a lesser extent of C, Ca, Fe, Mg, Cl, P and Na. Large agglomerates were found to contain mainly carbon and are considered to be primarily soot particles. The larger spherical and irregularly shaped particles were composed of same alkali metal compounds as ultrafine particles, but they were probably covered with heavy organic compounds. From SC, particles were composed mainly of carbon compounds and they had a more closed structure than the particles from NC, due to organic matter on the particles. In the present experiments, the ultrafine mode in the particle number distributions seemed to be determined mainly by the amount of released ash forming material in combustion, and the shifting of particle size during different combustion conditions seemed to be determined by the amount of condensed organic vapour in the flue gas.",
keywords = "Fine particles, Gaseous emissions, Single particle composition, Size distribution, Smouldering combustion, Wood smoke",
author = "J. Tissari and Jussi Lyyr{\"a}nen and K. Hyt{\"o}nen and O. Sippula and Unto Tapper and A. Frey and K. Saarnio and Pennanen, {A. S.} and R. Hillamo and Salonen, {R. O.} and M.-R. Hirvonen and J. Jokiniemi",
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doi = "10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.07.019",
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Tissari, J, Lyyränen, J, Hytönen, K, Sippula, O, Tapper, U, Frey, A, Saarnio, K, Pennanen, AS, Hillamo, R, Salonen, RO, Hirvonen, M-R & Jokiniemi, J 2008, 'Fine particle and gaseous emissions from normal and smouldering wood combustion in a conventional masonry heater', Atmospheric Environment, vol. 42, no. 34, pp. 7862-7873. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.07.019

Fine particle and gaseous emissions from normal and smouldering wood combustion in a conventional masonry heater. / Tissari, J.; Lyyränen, Jussi; Hytönen, K.; Sippula, O.; Tapper, Unto; Frey, A.; Saarnio, K.; Pennanen, A. S.; Hillamo, R.; Salonen, R. O.; Hirvonen, M.-R.; Jokiniemi, J.

In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 42, No. 34, 2008, p. 7862-7873.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fine particle and gaseous emissions from normal and smouldering wood combustion in a conventional masonry heater

AU - Tissari, J.

AU - Lyyränen, Jussi

AU - Hytönen, K.

AU - Sippula, O.

AU - Tapper, Unto

AU - Frey, A.

AU - Saarnio, K.

AU - Pennanen, A. S.

AU - Hillamo, R.

AU - Salonen, R. O.

AU - Hirvonen, M.-R.

AU - Jokiniemi, J.

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - The fine particle and gas emissions from the residential wood combustion (RWC) appear to be a major contributor to winter-time pollution in Europe. In this study, we characterised the effect of two different combustion conditions on particulate and gaseous emissions from a conventional masonry heater. Normal combustion (NC) is the best available operational practice for the heater, whereas smouldering combustion (SC) mimicked slow heating combustion. It was found that the operational practice in RWC can significantly influence the quantity and quality of particle and gaseous emissions into the atmosphere. In SC, the emissions of carbon monoxide were 3.5-fold, total volatile organics 14-fold and PM1 6-fold to those of NC, whereas the mass of the inorganic compounds (“fine ash”) and particle number emissions were lower from SC than from NC. According to electron microscopy analyses, the observed fine ash particles seemed to occur mainly as separate spherical or irregularly shaped particles but not as agglomerates. Ultrafine (<100 nm) fine ash particles were composed mainly of K, S and Zn, but also in a lesser extent of C, Ca, Fe, Mg, Cl, P and Na. Large agglomerates were found to contain mainly carbon and are considered to be primarily soot particles. The larger spherical and irregularly shaped particles were composed of same alkali metal compounds as ultrafine particles, but they were probably covered with heavy organic compounds. From SC, particles were composed mainly of carbon compounds and they had a more closed structure than the particles from NC, due to organic matter on the particles. In the present experiments, the ultrafine mode in the particle number distributions seemed to be determined mainly by the amount of released ash forming material in combustion, and the shifting of particle size during different combustion conditions seemed to be determined by the amount of condensed organic vapour in the flue gas.

AB - The fine particle and gas emissions from the residential wood combustion (RWC) appear to be a major contributor to winter-time pollution in Europe. In this study, we characterised the effect of two different combustion conditions on particulate and gaseous emissions from a conventional masonry heater. Normal combustion (NC) is the best available operational practice for the heater, whereas smouldering combustion (SC) mimicked slow heating combustion. It was found that the operational practice in RWC can significantly influence the quantity and quality of particle and gaseous emissions into the atmosphere. In SC, the emissions of carbon monoxide were 3.5-fold, total volatile organics 14-fold and PM1 6-fold to those of NC, whereas the mass of the inorganic compounds (“fine ash”) and particle number emissions were lower from SC than from NC. According to electron microscopy analyses, the observed fine ash particles seemed to occur mainly as separate spherical or irregularly shaped particles but not as agglomerates. Ultrafine (<100 nm) fine ash particles were composed mainly of K, S and Zn, but also in a lesser extent of C, Ca, Fe, Mg, Cl, P and Na. Large agglomerates were found to contain mainly carbon and are considered to be primarily soot particles. The larger spherical and irregularly shaped particles were composed of same alkali metal compounds as ultrafine particles, but they were probably covered with heavy organic compounds. From SC, particles were composed mainly of carbon compounds and they had a more closed structure than the particles from NC, due to organic matter on the particles. In the present experiments, the ultrafine mode in the particle number distributions seemed to be determined mainly by the amount of released ash forming material in combustion, and the shifting of particle size during different combustion conditions seemed to be determined by the amount of condensed organic vapour in the flue gas.

KW - Fine particles

KW - Gaseous emissions

KW - Single particle composition

KW - Size distribution

KW - Smouldering combustion

KW - Wood smoke

U2 - 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.07.019

DO - 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.07.019

M3 - Article

VL - 42

SP - 7862

EP - 7873

JO - Atmospheric Environment

JF - Atmospheric Environment

SN - 1352-2310

IS - 34

ER -