Fine particle and trace element emissions from waste combustion

Comparison of fluidized bed and grate firing

Terttaliisa Lind (Corresponding Author), Jouni Hokkinen, Jorma K. Jokiniemi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Waste-to-energy applications are increasingly being used to simultaneously reduce the amount of waste and produce electricity and heat. As waste materials typically contain high concentrations of impurities that are transformed during combustion, the flue gases need to be cleaned efficiently in order to avoid harmful emissions to the environment. In this investigation, we determined experimentally fly ash particle characteristics – particle size, composition and concentration – as well as particle and trace element emissions during waste combustion in two full-scale plants using different combustion technologies but similar gas cleaning technology.
The two combustion plants were a grate-fired boiler, and a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. Both boilers used selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) for NOx control together with novel integrated flue gas desulfurization (NID) for flue gas cleaning. The trace elements included in the investigation were As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl, and V.

Fine fly ash particles were formed from the gas phase ash-forming species by nucleation and condensation. Concentration of particles smaller than 1.0 μm by diameter (PM1.0) at grate-fired plant was 1.0–1.4 g/Nm3, approximately four times the PM1.0 concentration at CFB combustion, 0.25–0.31 g/Nm3, as determined upstream of the flue gas cleaning system NID.
The average total fly ash mass concentration was higher at CFB combustion than at grate firing with 4.6 g/m3 and 1.4 g/m3, respectively. Particle and trace element emissions were very low from both grate-fired and fluidized bed plants. Fabric filter particle collection efficiency was 99.99% by mass at both plants. All the measured emissions were clearly below the limit values set by European Waste Incineration Directive (WID).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)737-746
JournalFuel Processing Technology
Volume88
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Trace Elements
Coal Ash
Trace elements
Flue gases
Fluidized beds
Fly ash
Boilers
Cleaning
Fluidized bed combustion
Ashes
Gases
Waste incineration
Desulfurization
Condensation
Nucleation
Electricity
Particle size
Impurities
Chemical analysis

Keywords

  • Trace element
  • PM1.0
  • Fine particles
  • emissions
  • Waste
  • Combustion

Cite this

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title = "Fine particle and trace element emissions from waste combustion: Comparison of fluidized bed and grate firing",
abstract = "Waste-to-energy applications are increasingly being used to simultaneously reduce the amount of waste and produce electricity and heat. As waste materials typically contain high concentrations of impurities that are transformed during combustion, the flue gases need to be cleaned efficiently in order to avoid harmful emissions to the environment. In this investigation, we determined experimentally fly ash particle characteristics – particle size, composition and concentration – as well as particle and trace element emissions during waste combustion in two full-scale plants using different combustion technologies but similar gas cleaning technology. The two combustion plants were a grate-fired boiler, and a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. Both boilers used selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) for NOx control together with novel integrated flue gas desulfurization (NID) for flue gas cleaning. The trace elements included in the investigation were As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl, and V.Fine fly ash particles were formed from the gas phase ash-forming species by nucleation and condensation. Concentration of particles smaller than 1.0 μm by diameter (PM1.0) at grate-fired plant was 1.0–1.4 g/Nm3, approximately four times the PM1.0 concentration at CFB combustion, 0.25–0.31 g/Nm3, as determined upstream of the flue gas cleaning system NID. The average total fly ash mass concentration was higher at CFB combustion than at grate firing with 4.6 g/m3 and 1.4 g/m3, respectively. Particle and trace element emissions were very low from both grate-fired and fluidized bed plants. Fabric filter particle collection efficiency was 99.99{\%} by mass at both plants. All the measured emissions were clearly below the limit values set by European Waste Incineration Directive (WID).",
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Fine particle and trace element emissions from waste combustion : Comparison of fluidized bed and grate firing. / Lind, Terttaliisa (Corresponding Author); Hokkinen, Jouni; Jokiniemi, Jorma K.

In: Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 88, No. 7, 2007, p. 737-746.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Fine particle and trace element emissions from waste combustion

T2 - Comparison of fluidized bed and grate firing

AU - Lind, Terttaliisa

AU - Hokkinen, Jouni

AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma K.

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - Waste-to-energy applications are increasingly being used to simultaneously reduce the amount of waste and produce electricity and heat. As waste materials typically contain high concentrations of impurities that are transformed during combustion, the flue gases need to be cleaned efficiently in order to avoid harmful emissions to the environment. In this investigation, we determined experimentally fly ash particle characteristics – particle size, composition and concentration – as well as particle and trace element emissions during waste combustion in two full-scale plants using different combustion technologies but similar gas cleaning technology. The two combustion plants were a grate-fired boiler, and a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. Both boilers used selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) for NOx control together with novel integrated flue gas desulfurization (NID) for flue gas cleaning. The trace elements included in the investigation were As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl, and V.Fine fly ash particles were formed from the gas phase ash-forming species by nucleation and condensation. Concentration of particles smaller than 1.0 μm by diameter (PM1.0) at grate-fired plant was 1.0–1.4 g/Nm3, approximately four times the PM1.0 concentration at CFB combustion, 0.25–0.31 g/Nm3, as determined upstream of the flue gas cleaning system NID. The average total fly ash mass concentration was higher at CFB combustion than at grate firing with 4.6 g/m3 and 1.4 g/m3, respectively. Particle and trace element emissions were very low from both grate-fired and fluidized bed plants. Fabric filter particle collection efficiency was 99.99% by mass at both plants. All the measured emissions were clearly below the limit values set by European Waste Incineration Directive (WID).

AB - Waste-to-energy applications are increasingly being used to simultaneously reduce the amount of waste and produce electricity and heat. As waste materials typically contain high concentrations of impurities that are transformed during combustion, the flue gases need to be cleaned efficiently in order to avoid harmful emissions to the environment. In this investigation, we determined experimentally fly ash particle characteristics – particle size, composition and concentration – as well as particle and trace element emissions during waste combustion in two full-scale plants using different combustion technologies but similar gas cleaning technology. The two combustion plants were a grate-fired boiler, and a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. Both boilers used selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) for NOx control together with novel integrated flue gas desulfurization (NID) for flue gas cleaning. The trace elements included in the investigation were As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl, and V.Fine fly ash particles were formed from the gas phase ash-forming species by nucleation and condensation. Concentration of particles smaller than 1.0 μm by diameter (PM1.0) at grate-fired plant was 1.0–1.4 g/Nm3, approximately four times the PM1.0 concentration at CFB combustion, 0.25–0.31 g/Nm3, as determined upstream of the flue gas cleaning system NID. The average total fly ash mass concentration was higher at CFB combustion than at grate firing with 4.6 g/m3 and 1.4 g/m3, respectively. Particle and trace element emissions were very low from both grate-fired and fluidized bed plants. Fabric filter particle collection efficiency was 99.99% by mass at both plants. All the measured emissions were clearly below the limit values set by European Waste Incineration Directive (WID).

KW - Trace element

KW - PM1.0

KW - Fine particles

KW - emissions

KW - Waste

KW - Combustion

U2 - 10.1016/j.fuproc.2007.03.004

DO - 10.1016/j.fuproc.2007.03.004

M3 - Article

VL - 88

SP - 737

EP - 746

JO - Fuel Processing Technology

JF - Fuel Processing Technology

SN - 0378-3820

IS - 7

ER -