### Abstract

In this paper, we present a simple analytic method that
can be used to predict potential energy depletion in
off-grid wireless backbone network nodes serving mobile
users. The instantaneous energy depletion of the
batteries of the network nodes is determined by random
energy arrivals and departures and modeled as a G/G/1
queue. To evaluate the online energy depletion
probability (EDP), an integral-free asymptotic approach
is typically used by assuming that the prediction horizon
approaches infinity. However, in many practical cases,
the time required by user connections can be rather
short. This indicates the need for proactive resource
management decisions over finite horizons so that the
transmission opportunities with limited energy and time
horizons are not wasted. Using Hölder's inequality, we
obtain a novel finite-horizon upper bound for the EDP,
and the result is compared with the infinite-horizon
method. The accuracy of the proposed bound, which is
addressed both analytically and numerically, proves to be
better for shorter prediction horizons. The finite- and
infinite-horizon methods are then applied for an energy
provisioning admission control (EP-AC) framework using
off-grid backbone network nodes. The key observation of
this paper is that the proposed finite-horizon prediction
approach admits significantly more users to the network
when the connection times are relatively short, while
retaining an integral-free closed-form structure suitable
for the online evaluation of the EDP.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 6731-6736 |

Journal | IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology |

Volume | 65 |

Issue number | 8 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2016 |

MoE publication type | A1 Journal article-refereed |

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### Keywords

- energy depletion
- energy harvesting
- queueing theory
- renewable energy
- resource management