Fires at chemical warehouses

A cone calorimeter study on the burning characteristics and fire effluent composition of selected chemical compounds

Jukka Hietaniemi, Raija Kallonen, Esko Mikkola

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The cone calorimeter technique was employed to investigate the burning characteristics and composition of fire effluents of selected chemicals, including pesticides, compounds used in the chemical industry, a liquid solvent and polymers. A controlled-atmosphere apparatus was utilised, allowing the ventilation conditions in the test chamber to be varied . The quantities measured to determine the burning properties were time to ignition, rate of heat release, mass of the sample and its rate of change and the smoke production. Also, several derived quantities characterising e.g. the combustion efficiency are presented. The composition of the fire effluents was determined by FTIR spectroscopy and GC/MS analysis. With some substances the influence of extinction with a water spray was studied. A comprehensive survey of the correlations between several quantities is presented.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages91
ISBN (Print)951-38-5085-4
Publication statusPublished - 1997
MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

Publication series

NameVTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes
PublisherVTT
Volume1810
ISSN (Print)1235-0605

Fingerprint

Chemical compounds
Warehouses
Calorimeters
Cones
Effluents
Fires
Chemical analysis
Chemical industry
Pesticides
Smoke
Ventilation
Ignition
Spectroscopy
Protective atmospheres
Liquids
Polymers
Water

Keywords

  • fires
  • effluents
  • burning process
  • fire tests
  • calorimeters

Cite this

Hietaniemi, J., Kallonen, R., & Mikkola, E. (1997). Fires at chemical warehouses: A cone calorimeter study on the burning characteristics and fire effluent composition of selected chemical compounds. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes, No. 1810
Hietaniemi, Jukka ; Kallonen, Raija ; Mikkola, Esko. / Fires at chemical warehouses : A cone calorimeter study on the burning characteristics and fire effluent composition of selected chemical compounds. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1997. 91 p. (VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes; No. 1810).
@book{997fc50af5184a1b86eb5a2aab5038f9,
title = "Fires at chemical warehouses: A cone calorimeter study on the burning characteristics and fire effluent composition of selected chemical compounds",
abstract = "The cone calorimeter technique was employed to investigate the burning characteristics and composition of fire effluents of selected chemicals, including pesticides, compounds used in the chemical industry, a liquid solvent and polymers. A controlled-atmosphere apparatus was utilised, allowing the ventilation conditions in the test chamber to be varied . The quantities measured to determine the burning properties were time to ignition, rate of heat release, mass of the sample and its rate of change and the smoke production. Also, several derived quantities characterising e.g. the combustion efficiency are presented. The composition of the fire effluents was determined by FTIR spectroscopy and GC/MS analysis. With some substances the influence of extinction with a water spray was studied. A comprehensive survey of the correlations between several quantities is presented.",
keywords = "fires, effluents, burning process, fire tests, calorimeters",
author = "Jukka Hietaniemi and Raija Kallonen and Esko Mikkola",
year = "1997",
language = "English",
isbn = "951-38-5085-4",
series = "VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes",
publisher = "VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland",
address = "Finland",

}

Hietaniemi, J, Kallonen, R & Mikkola, E 1997, Fires at chemical warehouses: A cone calorimeter study on the burning characteristics and fire effluent composition of selected chemical compounds. VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes, no. 1810, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.

Fires at chemical warehouses : A cone calorimeter study on the burning characteristics and fire effluent composition of selected chemical compounds. / Hietaniemi, Jukka; Kallonen, Raija; Mikkola, Esko.

Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1997. 91 p. (VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes; No. 1810).

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional

TY - BOOK

T1 - Fires at chemical warehouses

T2 - A cone calorimeter study on the burning characteristics and fire effluent composition of selected chemical compounds

AU - Hietaniemi, Jukka

AU - Kallonen, Raija

AU - Mikkola, Esko

PY - 1997

Y1 - 1997

N2 - The cone calorimeter technique was employed to investigate the burning characteristics and composition of fire effluents of selected chemicals, including pesticides, compounds used in the chemical industry, a liquid solvent and polymers. A controlled-atmosphere apparatus was utilised, allowing the ventilation conditions in the test chamber to be varied . The quantities measured to determine the burning properties were time to ignition, rate of heat release, mass of the sample and its rate of change and the smoke production. Also, several derived quantities characterising e.g. the combustion efficiency are presented. The composition of the fire effluents was determined by FTIR spectroscopy and GC/MS analysis. With some substances the influence of extinction with a water spray was studied. A comprehensive survey of the correlations between several quantities is presented.

AB - The cone calorimeter technique was employed to investigate the burning characteristics and composition of fire effluents of selected chemicals, including pesticides, compounds used in the chemical industry, a liquid solvent and polymers. A controlled-atmosphere apparatus was utilised, allowing the ventilation conditions in the test chamber to be varied . The quantities measured to determine the burning properties were time to ignition, rate of heat release, mass of the sample and its rate of change and the smoke production. Also, several derived quantities characterising e.g. the combustion efficiency are presented. The composition of the fire effluents was determined by FTIR spectroscopy and GC/MS analysis. With some substances the influence of extinction with a water spray was studied. A comprehensive survey of the correlations between several quantities is presented.

KW - fires

KW - effluents

KW - burning process

KW - fire tests

KW - calorimeters

M3 - Report

SN - 951-38-5085-4

T3 - VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes

BT - Fires at chemical warehouses

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

ER -

Hietaniemi J, Kallonen R, Mikkola E. Fires at chemical warehouses: A cone calorimeter study on the burning characteristics and fire effluent composition of selected chemical compounds. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1997. 91 p. (VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes; No. 1810).