Flexible OPV modules for highly efficient indoor applications

Mari Ylikunnari (Corresponding Author), Marja Välimäki, Kaisa Leena Väisänen, Thomas M. Kraft, Rafal Sliz, Gianni Corso, Riccardo Po, Riccardo Barbieri, Chiara Carbonera, Giacomo Gorni, Marja Vilkman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


The comparison of solution processed organic photovoltaics with two roll-to-roll coated electron transport layers (ETL), as well as printed grid or solid back electrodes provides insight into the future of R2R fabricated architectures. The variation in performance of the R2R slot-die coated zinc oxide (ZnO) versus the tin oxide (SnO2), showed a clear dependence on the spectrum of the illumination source. It was found that under indoor light conditions (200-1000 lux LED and fluorescent sources) the SnO2 outperformed the ZnO with highest efficiencies near 13% and 10% respectively. This is in contrast to results obtained under 1 Sun (AM 1.5) in which the cells fabricated with a ZnO ETL had a higher power conversion efficiency than those prepared with SnO2. The results also confirm the significance of the layout of the printed silver back contact; in which cells with the grid structure outperformed those with full coverage by approximately 35% for ZnO and just under 10% for SnO2 (all light conditions). The combination of a R2R coating and S2S printing process to prepare modules with 8 cells in series (PET/ITO/SnO2/PV2001:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/silver grid) resulted in a PCE of 13.4% under indoor office light conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number014008
JournalFlexible and Printed Electronics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 12 Feb 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • indoor light
  • organic photovoltaics
  • polymer solar cells
  • R2R
  • S2S
  • solution-processed


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