Flexible Organic Photovoltaics with Star-Shaped Nonfullerene Acceptors End Capped with Indene Malononitrile and Barbiturate Derivatives

Basheer Al-Anesi, Srikanth Revoju, Arto Hiltunen, Riikka Suhonen, Thomas M. Kraft, Maning Liu, Haichang Zhang, Zhifeng Deng, Chiara Fedele, Alex Berdin, Noora Lamminen, G. Krishnamurthy Grandhi, Mari Ylikunnari, Paola Vivo (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

The design and synthesis of three star-shaped nonfullerene (NFA) acceptors, TPA-2T-INCN, TPA-2T-BAB, and TPA-T-INCN, based on a triphenylamine (TPA) core and linked through π-conjugated thiophene (T) spacers to different terminal units (3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-ylidene) malononitrile, INCN, and 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid, BAB), are reported. These materials are blended with the widely used poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) donor polymer and tested in flexible organic photovoltaics (OPVs). The NFAs capped with the strong electron-withdrawing INCN unit perform best in OPVs. Both P3HT:TPA-T-INCN and P3HT:TPA-2T-INCN blends also show the highest photoluminescence quenching efficiency (95.8% and 92.6%, respectively). Surprisingly, when reducing the number of T spacers from 2 to 1, the solubility of the NFAs in o-dichlorobenzene increases, leading to easier processing during the OPV fabrication and better surface morphology. This explains the best performance of TPA-T-INCN-based blends in OPVs, with a champion power conversion efficiency of 1.13%.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2200264
JournalEnergy Technology
Volume10
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • barbiturate
  • flexible photovoltaics
  • indene malononitrile
  • nonfullerene acceptors
  • organic photovoltaics
  • star-shaped acceptors

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