Foamability and viscosity behavior of extrusion foamed PLA–pulp fiber biocomposites

Teijo Rokkonen (Corresponding Author), Heidi Peltola, David Sandquist

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

This study addresses the effect of fiber reinforcement, chain extension, and physical foaming agent type on foam morphology and viscosity behavior of pulp fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) biocomposites. PLA reinforced with 0, 10, and 20 wt % of bleached kraft pulp fibers with and without chain extender were foamed using two different physical foaming agents (carbon dioxide and isobutane) by extrusion foaming. Densities, foam morphologies, and viscosities were systematically analyzed and compared from the produced foams. As a conclusion, low-density foams are produced with both foaming agents and fiber levels, fiber addition limiting cell growth. Isobutane provides better dimensional stability with narrower cell size distribution, whereas carbon dioxide enables lower foaming temperature. Chain extension is essential to achieve foam with low density and good cell structure. Contrary to nonchain extended PLA, addition of fibers reduced the viscosity of chain extended PLA.

Original languageEnglish
Article number48202
JournalJournal of Applied Polymer Science
Volume136
Issue number41
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Jul 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Extrusion
Foams
Blowing agents
Viscosity
Butanes
Fibers
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon dioxide
Bleached pulp
Kraft pulp
Dimensional stability
Cell growth
Lactic acid
Fiber reinforced materials
Pulp
Temperature

Keywords

  • biocomposite
  • foam morphology
  • foaming
  • poly(lactic acid)
  • pulp fibers
  • wood-based fibers

Cite this

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title = "Foamability and viscosity behavior of extrusion foamed PLA–pulp fiber biocomposites",
abstract = "This study addresses the effect of fiber reinforcement, chain extension, and physical foaming agent type on foam morphology and viscosity behavior of pulp fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) biocomposites. PLA reinforced with 0, 10, and 20 wt {\%} of bleached kraft pulp fibers with and without chain extender were foamed using two different physical foaming agents (carbon dioxide and isobutane) by extrusion foaming. Densities, foam morphologies, and viscosities were systematically analyzed and compared from the produced foams. As a conclusion, low-density foams are produced with both foaming agents and fiber levels, fiber addition limiting cell growth. Isobutane provides better dimensional stability with narrower cell size distribution, whereas carbon dioxide enables lower foaming temperature. Chain extension is essential to achieve foam with low density and good cell structure. Contrary to nonchain extended PLA, addition of fibers reduced the viscosity of chain extended PLA.",
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Foamability and viscosity behavior of extrusion foamed PLA–pulp fiber biocomposites. / Rokkonen, Teijo (Corresponding Author); Peltola, Heidi; Sandquist, David.

In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 136, No. 41, 48202, 08.07.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Foamability and viscosity behavior of extrusion foamed PLA–pulp fiber biocomposites

AU - Rokkonen, Teijo

AU - Peltola, Heidi

AU - Sandquist, David

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N2 - This study addresses the effect of fiber reinforcement, chain extension, and physical foaming agent type on foam morphology and viscosity behavior of pulp fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) biocomposites. PLA reinforced with 0, 10, and 20 wt % of bleached kraft pulp fibers with and without chain extender were foamed using two different physical foaming agents (carbon dioxide and isobutane) by extrusion foaming. Densities, foam morphologies, and viscosities were systematically analyzed and compared from the produced foams. As a conclusion, low-density foams are produced with both foaming agents and fiber levels, fiber addition limiting cell growth. Isobutane provides better dimensional stability with narrower cell size distribution, whereas carbon dioxide enables lower foaming temperature. Chain extension is essential to achieve foam with low density and good cell structure. Contrary to nonchain extended PLA, addition of fibers reduced the viscosity of chain extended PLA.

AB - This study addresses the effect of fiber reinforcement, chain extension, and physical foaming agent type on foam morphology and viscosity behavior of pulp fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) biocomposites. PLA reinforced with 0, 10, and 20 wt % of bleached kraft pulp fibers with and without chain extender were foamed using two different physical foaming agents (carbon dioxide and isobutane) by extrusion foaming. Densities, foam morphologies, and viscosities were systematically analyzed and compared from the produced foams. As a conclusion, low-density foams are produced with both foaming agents and fiber levels, fiber addition limiting cell growth. Isobutane provides better dimensional stability with narrower cell size distribution, whereas carbon dioxide enables lower foaming temperature. Chain extension is essential to achieve foam with low density and good cell structure. Contrary to nonchain extended PLA, addition of fibers reduced the viscosity of chain extended PLA.

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