Food Safety Assurance Systems: Management of Biofilm Risk

G Wirtanen, M Raulio, Satu Salo

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional


Biofilms occur in a wide range of environments, on every surface when supplied with moisture and nutrients. The biofilms consist of microcolonies formed by multiple microbial species embedded in an extracellular matrix. Biofilms are utilized in water purification and bioremediation of hazardous substances in the environment. However, they cause inconvenience when formed on industrial surfaces. Quantification of the actual number of microbes from surfaces is challenging because detection methods for measuring microbes directly from the surface are unpractical and detachment of microbes completely without damaging the surface or the microbes is difficult due to strong microbial adherence of biofilms
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Food Safety
Subtitle of host publicationFood Safety Management
EditorsYasmine Motarjemi
ISBN (Print)978-0-12-378613-5
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeD2 Article in professional manuals or guides or professional information systems or text book material


  • Biofilm;
  • Cleaning procedure;
  • Detection of microbes;
  • Food safety risk;
  • Hygienic design;
  • Pathogen;
  • Persistent contaminant;
  • Process hygiene;
  • Spoilage;
  • Surface;
  • Surface sampling methods

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  • Cite this

    Wirtanen, G., Raulio, M., & Salo, S. (2014). Food Safety Assurance Systems: Management of Biofilm Risk. In Y. Motarjemi (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Food Safety: Food Safety Management (Vol. 4, pp. 240-243). Elsevier.