Food Safety Assurance Systems: Management of Biofilm Risk

Gun Wirtanen, Mari Raulio, Satu Salo

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

    1 Citation (Scopus)


    Biofilms occur in a wide range of environments, on every surface when supplied with moisture and nutrients. The biofilms consist of microcolonies formed by multiple microbial species embedded in an extracellular matrix. Biofilms are utilized in water purification and bioremediation of hazardous substances in the environment. However, they cause inconvenience when formed on industrial surfaces. Quantification of the actual number of microbes from surfaces is challenging because detection methods for measuring microbes directly from the surface are unpractical and detachment of microbes completely without damaging the surface or the microbes is difficult due to strong microbial adherence of biofilms
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Food Safety
    Subtitle of host publicationFood Safety Management
    EditorsYasmine Motarjemi
    ISBN (Print)978-0-12-378613-5
    Publication statusPublished - 2014
    MoE publication typeD2 Article in professional manuals or guides or professional information systems or text book material


    • Biofilm
    • Cleaning procedure
    • Detection of microbes
    • Food safety risk
    • Hygienic design
    • pathogen
    • Persistent contaminant
    • process hygiene
    • spoilage
    • surface
    • Surface sampling methods


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