Foregone carbon sequestration due to land occupation: The case of agro-bioenergy in Finland

Kati Koponen (Corresponding Author), Sampo Soimakallio

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    8 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Purpose: As proposed by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)-Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative (Milà i Canals et al., Int J Life Cycle Assess 18:1265-1277, 2007 and Koellner et al., Int J Life Cycle Assess 18:1188-1202, 2013), the impacts of land occupation should be studied in comparison to a baseline. Regardless of these guidelines, a land use baseline is often ignored in agro-bioenergy life cycle assessment (LCA) studies. This paper tests the appropriateness and significance of applying natural regeneration as a land use baseline for assessing the greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of agro-bioenergy in Finland. Methods: In the land use baseline applied, the land is assumed to be left to regenerate toward its natural state, which, in Finland, would most probably be some sort of forest. The foregone carbon stock of the natural regeneration baseline was estimated based on the literature. The GHG balances were studied by comparing the cumulative warming impacts of the dynamic biomass carbon cycle of the agro-bioenergy production system and the defined baseline over a given time horizon varying from 0 to 100 years. The significance of the results is illustrated by comparing them to other GHG emissions related to bioenergy. Results and discussion: The results depend significantly on the agro-bioenergy yields and the carbon sequestration rate assumed in the natural regeneration baseline scenario. The GHG balances may be of the same magnitude as GHG emissions due to indirect land use changes resulting from market-mediated impacts, life cycle emissions of fossil fuels, and relative reduction in carbon stocks due to forest harvesting for bioenergy. Conclusions: Ignoring a dynamic land use baseline results in misleading conclusions on the GHG balances of land occupation, including agro-bioenergy, due to ignorance of foregone carbon sequestration. Thus, the interpretation of the results and conclusions provided in the vast number of agro-bioenergy LCA studies relying on biomass carbon neutrality should be reassessed. Besides bioenergy, the issue of land use baseline is relevant for any provision service function of land occupation. The foregone carbon sequestration is, however, highly uncertain and thus speculative.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1544-1556
    JournalInternational Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
    Volume20
    Issue number11
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2015
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    bioenergy
    carbon sequestration
    greenhouse gas
    life cycle
    land use
    carbon
    land occupation
    United Nations Environment Program
    service provision
    biomass
    toxicology
    carbon cycle
    production system
    fossil fuel
    land use change
    warming
    market

    Keywords

    • agro-biomass
    • baseline
    • climate impact
    • land use
    • natural regeneration

    Cite this

    @article{e410494ce5c44b068110d1db9e9c016f,
    title = "Foregone carbon sequestration due to land occupation: The case of agro-bioenergy in Finland",
    abstract = "Purpose: As proposed by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)-Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative (Mil{\`a} i Canals et al., Int J Life Cycle Assess 18:1265-1277, 2007 and Koellner et al., Int J Life Cycle Assess 18:1188-1202, 2013), the impacts of land occupation should be studied in comparison to a baseline. Regardless of these guidelines, a land use baseline is often ignored in agro-bioenergy life cycle assessment (LCA) studies. This paper tests the appropriateness and significance of applying natural regeneration as a land use baseline for assessing the greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of agro-bioenergy in Finland. Methods: In the land use baseline applied, the land is assumed to be left to regenerate toward its natural state, which, in Finland, would most probably be some sort of forest. The foregone carbon stock of the natural regeneration baseline was estimated based on the literature. The GHG balances were studied by comparing the cumulative warming impacts of the dynamic biomass carbon cycle of the agro-bioenergy production system and the defined baseline over a given time horizon varying from 0 to 100 years. The significance of the results is illustrated by comparing them to other GHG emissions related to bioenergy. Results and discussion: The results depend significantly on the agro-bioenergy yields and the carbon sequestration rate assumed in the natural regeneration baseline scenario. The GHG balances may be of the same magnitude as GHG emissions due to indirect land use changes resulting from market-mediated impacts, life cycle emissions of fossil fuels, and relative reduction in carbon stocks due to forest harvesting for bioenergy. Conclusions: Ignoring a dynamic land use baseline results in misleading conclusions on the GHG balances of land occupation, including agro-bioenergy, due to ignorance of foregone carbon sequestration. Thus, the interpretation of the results and conclusions provided in the vast number of agro-bioenergy LCA studies relying on biomass carbon neutrality should be reassessed. Besides bioenergy, the issue of land use baseline is relevant for any provision service function of land occupation. The foregone carbon sequestration is, however, highly uncertain and thus speculative.",
    keywords = "agro-biomass, baseline, climate impact, land use, natural regeneration",
    author = "Kati Koponen and Sampo Soimakallio",
    year = "2015",
    doi = "10.1007/s11367-015-0956-x",
    language = "English",
    volume = "20",
    pages = "1544--1556",
    journal = "International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment",
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    Foregone carbon sequestration due to land occupation : The case of agro-bioenergy in Finland. / Koponen, Kati (Corresponding Author); Soimakallio, Sampo.

    In: International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Vol. 20, No. 11, 2015, p. 1544-1556.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Foregone carbon sequestration due to land occupation

    T2 - The case of agro-bioenergy in Finland

    AU - Koponen, Kati

    AU - Soimakallio, Sampo

    PY - 2015

    Y1 - 2015

    N2 - Purpose: As proposed by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)-Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative (Milà i Canals et al., Int J Life Cycle Assess 18:1265-1277, 2007 and Koellner et al., Int J Life Cycle Assess 18:1188-1202, 2013), the impacts of land occupation should be studied in comparison to a baseline. Regardless of these guidelines, a land use baseline is often ignored in agro-bioenergy life cycle assessment (LCA) studies. This paper tests the appropriateness and significance of applying natural regeneration as a land use baseline for assessing the greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of agro-bioenergy in Finland. Methods: In the land use baseline applied, the land is assumed to be left to regenerate toward its natural state, which, in Finland, would most probably be some sort of forest. The foregone carbon stock of the natural regeneration baseline was estimated based on the literature. The GHG balances were studied by comparing the cumulative warming impacts of the dynamic biomass carbon cycle of the agro-bioenergy production system and the defined baseline over a given time horizon varying from 0 to 100 years. The significance of the results is illustrated by comparing them to other GHG emissions related to bioenergy. Results and discussion: The results depend significantly on the agro-bioenergy yields and the carbon sequestration rate assumed in the natural regeneration baseline scenario. The GHG balances may be of the same magnitude as GHG emissions due to indirect land use changes resulting from market-mediated impacts, life cycle emissions of fossil fuels, and relative reduction in carbon stocks due to forest harvesting for bioenergy. Conclusions: Ignoring a dynamic land use baseline results in misleading conclusions on the GHG balances of land occupation, including agro-bioenergy, due to ignorance of foregone carbon sequestration. Thus, the interpretation of the results and conclusions provided in the vast number of agro-bioenergy LCA studies relying on biomass carbon neutrality should be reassessed. Besides bioenergy, the issue of land use baseline is relevant for any provision service function of land occupation. The foregone carbon sequestration is, however, highly uncertain and thus speculative.

    AB - Purpose: As proposed by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)-Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative (Milà i Canals et al., Int J Life Cycle Assess 18:1265-1277, 2007 and Koellner et al., Int J Life Cycle Assess 18:1188-1202, 2013), the impacts of land occupation should be studied in comparison to a baseline. Regardless of these guidelines, a land use baseline is often ignored in agro-bioenergy life cycle assessment (LCA) studies. This paper tests the appropriateness and significance of applying natural regeneration as a land use baseline for assessing the greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of agro-bioenergy in Finland. Methods: In the land use baseline applied, the land is assumed to be left to regenerate toward its natural state, which, in Finland, would most probably be some sort of forest. The foregone carbon stock of the natural regeneration baseline was estimated based on the literature. The GHG balances were studied by comparing the cumulative warming impacts of the dynamic biomass carbon cycle of the agro-bioenergy production system and the defined baseline over a given time horizon varying from 0 to 100 years. The significance of the results is illustrated by comparing them to other GHG emissions related to bioenergy. Results and discussion: The results depend significantly on the agro-bioenergy yields and the carbon sequestration rate assumed in the natural regeneration baseline scenario. The GHG balances may be of the same magnitude as GHG emissions due to indirect land use changes resulting from market-mediated impacts, life cycle emissions of fossil fuels, and relative reduction in carbon stocks due to forest harvesting for bioenergy. Conclusions: Ignoring a dynamic land use baseline results in misleading conclusions on the GHG balances of land occupation, including agro-bioenergy, due to ignorance of foregone carbon sequestration. Thus, the interpretation of the results and conclusions provided in the vast number of agro-bioenergy LCA studies relying on biomass carbon neutrality should be reassessed. Besides bioenergy, the issue of land use baseline is relevant for any provision service function of land occupation. The foregone carbon sequestration is, however, highly uncertain and thus speculative.

    KW - agro-biomass

    KW - baseline

    KW - climate impact

    KW - land use

    KW - natural regeneration

    U2 - 10.1007/s11367-015-0956-x

    DO - 10.1007/s11367-015-0956-x

    M3 - Article

    VL - 20

    SP - 1544

    EP - 1556

    JO - International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment

    JF - International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment

    SN - 0948-3349

    IS - 11

    ER -