Formation of phenolic microbial metabolites and short-chain fatty acids from rye, wheat, and oat bran and their fractions in the metabolical in vitro colon model

Emilia Nordlund (Corresponding Author), Anna-Maija Aura, Ismo Mattila, Tuija Kössö, X. Rouau, Kaisa Poutanen

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68 Citations (Scopus)


Rye bran and aleurone, wheat bran and aleurone, and oat bran and cell wall concentrate were compared in their in vitro gut fermentation patterns of individual phenolic acids and short-chain fatty acids, preceded by enzymatic in vitro digestion mimicking small intestinal events. The formation of phenolic metabolites was the most pronounced from the wheat aleurone fraction. Phenylpropionic acids, presumably derived from ferulic acid (FA), were the major phenyl metabolites formed from all bran preparations. The processed rye, wheat, and oat bran fractions contained more water-extractable dietary fiber (DF) and had smaller particle sizes and were thus more easily fermentable than the corresponding brans. Rye aleurone and bran had the highest fermentation rate and extent probably due to high fructan and water-extractable arabinoxylan content. Oat samples also had a high content of water-extractable DF, β-glucan, but their fermentation rate was lower. Enzymatic digestion prior to in vitro colon fermentation changed the structure of oat cell walls as visualized by microscopy and increased the particle size, which is suggested to have retarded the fermentability of oat samples. Wheat bran was the most slowly fermentable among the studied samples, presumably due to the high proportion of water-unextractable DF. The in vitro digestion reduced the fructan content of wheat samples, thus also decreasing their fermentability. Among the studied short-chain fatty acids, acetate dominated the profiles. The highest and lowest production of propionate was from the oat and wheat samples, respectively. Interestingly, wheat aleurone generated similar amounts of butyrate as the rye fractions even without rapid gas production.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8134-8145
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number33
Publication statusPublished - 2012
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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