Formation of spray ice on offshore structures

Lasse Makkonen

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional


    Problems caused by spray ice for vessels have been known as long as man has navigated cold sea areas. A more recent problem is the accumulation of spray ice on stationary structures at sea, e.g. drilling rigs in the arctic environment. On the other hand, spray ice can be used in making artificial ice islands. In this paper spray generation and the physical processes controlling the growth rate and properties of spray ice are reviewed.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationWorking Group on Ice Forces
    Subtitle of host publication4th State-of- the-Art Report
    EditorsG.W. Timco
    Place of PublicationHanover
    Publication statusPublished - 1989
    MoE publication typeD2 Article in professional manuals or guides or professional information systems or text book material

    Publication series

    SeriesCRREL Monograph


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