Fractional Frequency Reuse in Random Hybrid FD/HD Small Cell Networks with Fractional Power Control

Abbas Dehghani Firouzabadi, Amir Masoud Rabiei, Mikko Vehkaperä

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Small cells are regarded as a promising solution for improving the coverage and spectral efficiency of the fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. Small cell networks utilize low transmission power levels and thus, are appropriate for deploying full-duplex (FD) technology. In this paper, a hybrid full/half duplex (FD/HD) small cell network exploiting fractional frequency reuse (FFR) and fractional power control (FPC) for interference mitigation is considered. Theoretical expressions for the coverage probability and the average sum-rate in uplink and downlink directions are derived for systems that make use of conventional frequency reuse, hard FFR, and soft FFR. The impact of various system parameters, such as power control parameter, small base station (SBS) density, and self-interference cancellation (SIC) parameters on system performance are investigated. The numerical experiments show that SBSs tend to operate in FD mode for large values of SBS density and SIC level. Also, interestingly, the optimal sum-rate is achieved when all SBSs operate either in FD or in HD mode. Finally, it is observed that exploiting FFR techniques in FD networks making use of FPC, significantly improves downlink coverage probability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6691-6705
JournalIEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Issue number10
Early online date4 May 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Cochannel interference (CCI) mitigation
  • fractional frequency reuse (FFR)
  • fractional power control (FPC)
  • Frequency control
  • full-duplex (FD) radio
  • Geometry
  • Interference
  • Microcell networks
  • Power control
  • Propagation losses
  • stochastic geometry
  • Wireless communication


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