Free radical graft copolymerization of nanofibrillated cellulose with acrylic monomers

Kuisma Littunen, Ulla Hippi, Leena Sisko Johansson, Monika Österberg, Tekla Tammelin, Janne Laine, Jukka Seppälä

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    107 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was graft copolymerized in aqueous suspension by a redox-initiated free radical method. Cerium ammonium nitrate was used as initiator. Acrylic monomers used in the grafting were glycidyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Effects of monomer type and concentration, initiator concentration and polymerization time on grafting from NFC were studied. Grafting was verified by several chemical characterizations and the synthesis method was found to be both efficient and selective for grafting. Overall, graft yields were higher than those reported in studies with macroscopic cellulose but surprisingly independent of the water solubility of each monomer. All modifications made NFC more hydrophobic, and some also improved its heat resistance. The structures formed by the grafted polymer varied from a thin coating to a matrix completely surrounding the nanofibrils. By performing the grafting in aqueous suspension, the nanofibrillar structure was retained.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1039-1047
    Number of pages9
    JournalCarbohydrate Polymers
    Volume84
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 17 Mar 2011
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Acrylic monomers
    Free radicals
    Grafts
    Cellulose
    Copolymerization
    Free Radicals
    Transplants
    Suspensions
    Monomers
    Methacrylates
    Cerium
    Polymerization
    Solubility
    Oxidation-Reduction
    Polymers
    Heat resistance
    Hot Temperature
    Nitrates
    Water
    Coatings

    Keywords

    • Acrylates
    • Copolymerization
    • Grafting from
    • Methacrylates
    • Nanofibrillated cellulose

    Cite this

    Littunen, Kuisma ; Hippi, Ulla ; Johansson, Leena Sisko ; Österberg, Monika ; Tammelin, Tekla ; Laine, Janne ; Seppälä, Jukka. / Free radical graft copolymerization of nanofibrillated cellulose with acrylic monomers. In: Carbohydrate Polymers. 2011 ; Vol. 84, No. 3. pp. 1039-1047.
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    Free radical graft copolymerization of nanofibrillated cellulose with acrylic monomers. / Littunen, Kuisma; Hippi, Ulla; Johansson, Leena Sisko; Österberg, Monika; Tammelin, Tekla; Laine, Janne; Seppälä, Jukka.

    In: Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 84, No. 3, 17.03.2011, p. 1039-1047.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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    AU - Littunen, Kuisma

    AU - Hippi, Ulla

    AU - Johansson, Leena Sisko

    AU - Österberg, Monika

    AU - Tammelin, Tekla

    AU - Laine, Janne

    AU - Seppälä, Jukka

    PY - 2011/3/17

    Y1 - 2011/3/17

    N2 - Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was graft copolymerized in aqueous suspension by a redox-initiated free radical method. Cerium ammonium nitrate was used as initiator. Acrylic monomers used in the grafting were glycidyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Effects of monomer type and concentration, initiator concentration and polymerization time on grafting from NFC were studied. Grafting was verified by several chemical characterizations and the synthesis method was found to be both efficient and selective for grafting. Overall, graft yields were higher than those reported in studies with macroscopic cellulose but surprisingly independent of the water solubility of each monomer. All modifications made NFC more hydrophobic, and some also improved its heat resistance. The structures formed by the grafted polymer varied from a thin coating to a matrix completely surrounding the nanofibrils. By performing the grafting in aqueous suspension, the nanofibrillar structure was retained.

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