Free radical graft copolymerization of nanofibrillated cellulose with acrylic monomers

Kuisma Littunen, Ulla Hippi, Leena Sisko Johansson, Monika Österberg, Tekla Tammelin, Janne Laine, Jukka Seppälä

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

102 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was graft copolymerized in aqueous suspension by a redox-initiated free radical method. Cerium ammonium nitrate was used as initiator. Acrylic monomers used in the grafting were glycidyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Effects of monomer type and concentration, initiator concentration and polymerization time on grafting from NFC were studied. Grafting was verified by several chemical characterizations and the synthesis method was found to be both efficient and selective for grafting. Overall, graft yields were higher than those reported in studies with macroscopic cellulose but surprisingly independent of the water solubility of each monomer. All modifications made NFC more hydrophobic, and some also improved its heat resistance. The structures formed by the grafted polymer varied from a thin coating to a matrix completely surrounding the nanofibrils. By performing the grafting in aqueous suspension, the nanofibrillar structure was retained.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1039-1047
Number of pages9
JournalCarbohydrate Polymers
Volume84
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 Mar 2011
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Acrylic monomers
Free radicals
Grafts
Cellulose
Copolymerization
Free Radicals
Transplants
Suspensions
Monomers
Methacrylates
Cerium
Polymerization
Solubility
Oxidation-Reduction
Polymers
Heat resistance
Hot Temperature
Nitrates
Water
Coatings

Keywords

  • Acrylates
  • Copolymerization
  • Grafting from
  • Methacrylates
  • Nanofibrillated cellulose

Cite this

Littunen, Kuisma ; Hippi, Ulla ; Johansson, Leena Sisko ; Österberg, Monika ; Tammelin, Tekla ; Laine, Janne ; Seppälä, Jukka. / Free radical graft copolymerization of nanofibrillated cellulose with acrylic monomers. In: Carbohydrate Polymers. 2011 ; Vol. 84, No. 3. pp. 1039-1047.
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Free radical graft copolymerization of nanofibrillated cellulose with acrylic monomers. / Littunen, Kuisma; Hippi, Ulla; Johansson, Leena Sisko; Österberg, Monika; Tammelin, Tekla; Laine, Janne; Seppälä, Jukka.

In: Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 84, No. 3, 17.03.2011, p. 1039-1047.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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AU - Littunen, Kuisma

AU - Hippi, Ulla

AU - Johansson, Leena Sisko

AU - Österberg, Monika

AU - Tammelin, Tekla

AU - Laine, Janne

AU - Seppälä, Jukka

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N2 - Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was graft copolymerized in aqueous suspension by a redox-initiated free radical method. Cerium ammonium nitrate was used as initiator. Acrylic monomers used in the grafting were glycidyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Effects of monomer type and concentration, initiator concentration and polymerization time on grafting from NFC were studied. Grafting was verified by several chemical characterizations and the synthesis method was found to be both efficient and selective for grafting. Overall, graft yields were higher than those reported in studies with macroscopic cellulose but surprisingly independent of the water solubility of each monomer. All modifications made NFC more hydrophobic, and some also improved its heat resistance. The structures formed by the grafted polymer varied from a thin coating to a matrix completely surrounding the nanofibrils. By performing the grafting in aqueous suspension, the nanofibrillar structure was retained.

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